Although transgender people have received more and more attention in recent years, their experiences in everyday life, including their experiences with the healthcare system remain heavily understudied. Even more so, the experiences of transgender refugees have been overshadowed by the studies reflecting the experiences of lesbian and gay refugees. By means of a multiplecase study this ethnographic research aims at filling that gap. It sheds light on the different experiences of transwomen with transition-related healthcare in the Netherlands. As the ‘trans’ community in the Netherlands includes many people from South America, the main question is: Against the backdrop of transitionrelated healthcare, how do Latin American and Caribbean transwomen compared to Dutch transwomen experience the healthcare system in the Netherlands? Besides desk research and participant observation, this question is answered through indepth conversations (and much time spent) with transwomen. Criminological concepts such as social harm and social sorting have been applied in innovative ways, leading to new insights into both these criminological perspectives and human rights violations in this field. The author concludes that the ways in which transwomen experience the healthcare system do not differ so much in how care is provided, but rather in the emotional impact thereof. With this study the author hopes to have contributed to an initial step and encouraged further research into this field of study that has been neglected up until now.
Javier E. Rodríguez Diez
The transfer of ownership by a non-owner is a common situation in everyday commercial practice. However, the dogmatic framework surrounding it has often led to controversy when studying both Roman and modern private law. Key to this controversy is the introduction by German scholars, in the course of the 19th century, of the notion of ‘direct representation’ in order to approach the transfer of ownership by a non-owner. Regarding the study of Roman law, this involved assuming the existence of a primitive prohibition to alienate through a non-owner, since ‘direct representation’ was seen as a later innovation. This starting point had a decisive effect on the study of the transfer of ownership by a non-owner in Roman law, particularly concerning the significance of the voluntas domini, the way in which legal guardians alienate, the scope of praetorian innovations, the possibility to transfer ownership through formal acts and the role of the nemo plus rule. Regarding modern private law, this starting point has brought along a radical distinction based on whether the alienation takes place in the context of direct representation or not. This book attempts to offer a fresh view through a source-oriented approach in order to provide an outlook on the evolution of the transfer of ownership by a non-owner in Roman law, as well as the dogmatic and systematic standpoints among the jurists of the ius commune. Special attention is dedicated to the innovations of German scholarship, due to their significance for the study both of Roman law and for the evolution of modern private law.
Het begrip sociale markteconomie is in 1946 door Alfred Müller-Armack geïntroduceerd en heeft zijn beslag gekregen in artikel 3 lid 3 van het Verdrag betreffende de Europese Unie dat in 2009 in werking is getreden. Op grond van het artikel dient een sociale markteconomie mede de basis te vormen voor de duurzame ontwikkeling van Europa. Dit onderzoek beantwoordt de vraag in hoeverre het concept sociale markteconomie als ordeningsprincipe (nog) een toekomst heeft in de Europese praktijk. Om tot de beantwoording van deze vraag te kunnen komen wordt allereerst uitgebreid stilgestaan bij het begrip socialemarkteconomie zelf en wordt het daaronder liggende concept verduidelijkt. Vervolgens wordt bekeken op welke wijze het begrip zijn beslag in het Verdrag heeft gekregen, hoe het aldaar is ingebed en in hoeverre het vanuit en door de diverse Europese instellingen wordt gebezigd. Daarnaast is op exploratieve wijze geïnventariseerd hoe binnen het Europese discours over het begrip, het onderliggende concept sociale markteconomie en haar mogelijkheden in de Europese praktijk wordt gedacht. Ria Slegers is sinds 2002 verbonden aan de Open Universiteit en vanaf 2010 werkzaam als docent/onderzoeker bij de vakgroep Strafrecht, Internationaal en Europees Recht van de faculteit Cultuur- en Rechtswetenschappen.
|The recast Reception Conditions Directive|
P. Minderhoud & T. Strik (eds)
On 20 July 2015 the deadline expired for the transposition of the recast Reception Conditions Directive (Directive 2013/33/EU of 26 June 2013 laying down standards for the reception of applicants for international protection (recast), OJEU 2013 L180/96). The presentations on which this book is based, were originally given during a seminar on the Recast Reception Conditions Directive. This seminar took place at the Centre for Migration Law (Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence), Faculty of Law of the Radboud University Nijmegen, on Tuesday 8 December 2015. In light of the very substantial level of interest, we publish a book on the results of this seminar in order to enable those who were not able to attend to benefit from the wealth of knowledge and information which was shared. The book is divided in two sections. The first section deals with the central themes and the problem issues of the recast Reception Conditions Directive. The second part of the book focuses on the implementation of the recast Reception Conditions Directive in a selected number of Member States. This book offers insight in all the different aspects of the recast Reception Conditions Directive.
|Narratives on Organised Crime in Europe|
P. Van Duyne, M. Scheinost, G. Antonopoulos, J. Harvey & K. Von Lampe (eds.)
In this Cross-border Crime Volume a number of important European criminal narratives have been brought together. The chapters speak of criminal ‘narratives’ having a particular leitmotif around which elements of criminal phenomena are ordered such that a specific meaning can be conveyed. Corruption, organised and economic crime, fraud and money laundering are important themes for narratives about crime in Europe. The phenomenon of corruption has many common elements, which in each country become re-arranged into a national narrative or discourse. At present such narratives on corruption in Eastern Europe are highly relevant, in particular in view of the relationships with the EU. Also the organised crime narrative still has a prominent place in the European crime scene, whether it concerns Russian organised crime or cybercrime, targeting banks as well as individuals. The organisation of fraud and economic crime remains a serious challenge to consumers as well as the business sector. Amidst all these high-level forms of criminal organisation one can also find “traditional” versions of organised lawlessness, for example outlaw motorcycle gangs that continue to capture the imagination of law enforcement and the general public, not only Scandinavia. This fifteenth volume of the Cross-border Crime Colloquium, held once a year at a different locatuion in Europe since 1999, contains the peer reviewed contributions of 18 internationally established and up-coming experts in the field of organised and economic crime, corruption, fraud and money laundering. The chapters are based on original empirical date and critical analysis and provide new insights in these fields, stimulating a critical discourse on criminal phenomena in Europe and beyond.
|Crimmigration law in the European Union|
A. Pahladsingh & J. Waasdorp
In the European Union the Return Directive aims at establishing common standards and procedures to be applied in Member States for returning illegally staying third-country nationals. An entry ban prohibits entry into and stay on the territory of all EU Member States (except the United Kingdom and Ireland) and Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein. This instrument is intended to have preventive effects and to foster the credibility of EU return policy. The clear message is that those who disregard migration rules in the Member States will not be allowed to re-enter any Member State for a specified period. Furthermore, the entry ban is an instrument which can be used to prevent or to counter terrorism. The use of criminal sanctions in the area of immigration opens the largely political debate on the legitimacy of the process of criminalizing foreigners. The merger between criminal law and immigration law has been classified as “crimmigration law”. The entry ban falls within the scope of crimmigration law. The relation between immigration law and criminal law and the compatibility of national penal measures imposed as a punishment for illegal migration is developed in the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union. There is a well-established jurisprudence on the interplay between domestic penal sanctions and the effectiveness of return policy. The effectiveness of the return process would be compromised by the application of a criminal penalty for violating the entry ban, because the primary objective of the Directive is not to prevent illegal presence in the territory but rather to put an end to it. The current issue is to determine to what extent the use of criminal sanctions by Member States is allowed in the situation that an entry ban is issued against an illegally staying third-country national. This research focuses on this issue.
|De verhoudingen in het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden|
Prof. mr. P.P.T. Bovend’Eert Mr. drs. T.E.J.H. van Gennip S.P. Poppelaars LLM, BSc Mr. drs. J.J.J. Sillen (red)
Op 18 december 2015 vond de jaarlijkse staatsrechtconferentie plaats. De organisatie ervan was in handen van de vaksectie staatsrecht van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Radboud Universiteit te Nijmegen. De conferentie was gewijd aan de verhoudingen in het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden.
Op 10 oktober 2010 onderging het Koninkrijk een ingrijpende staatsrechtelijke en staatkundige hervorming. Krachtens artikel 1 van het Statuut voor het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden omvat het Koninkrijk sindsdien de landen Nederland, Aruba, Curaçao en Sint Maarten. De Caribische eilanden Bonaire, Sint Eustatius en Saba maken sindsdien elk deel uit van het staatsbestel van Nederland. Daarnaast zijn in het kader van artikel 38 Statuut enige zogeheten consensusrijkswetten tot stand gekomen op onder meer de terreinen van rechtspleging, rechtshandhaving en het financieel toezicht. Sinds 2010 legt artikel 12a Statuut vast dat bij rijkswet voorzieningen worden getroffen voor de behandeling van geschillen tussen het Koninkrijk en de landen. De conferentie volgde kort na de in 2015 gehouden evaluaties van de nieuwe verhoudingen in het Koninkrijk.
Deskundigen hebben tijdens de conferentie vanuit verschillende invalshoeken aandacht besteed aan deze nieuwe verhoudingen in het Koninkrijk. Deze bundel bevat de tekst van de voordrachten van de plenaire presentaties en de papers van deskundigen op het gebied van deze nieuwe verhoudingen in het Koninkrijk. Deze bijdragen gaan over (1) constitutionele toetsing en geschilbeslechting in het Koninkrijk, (2) vraagstukken van vertegenwoordiging, samenwerking en toezicht in autonome en Koninkrijksaangelegenheden, en (3) het vraagstuk van differentiatie of gelijkheid in het kader van de positie van de BES-eilanden in de Nederlandse rechtsorde.
|INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ON NATIONALITY LAW|
G. R. de Groot & O.W. Vonk
While nationality law has traditionally been part of the nation-state’s ‘reserved domain’, recent decades have witnessed a growing body of international standards and guidelines in this area. This book provides the first comprehensive collection of multilateral international treaties, other international documents and case law of international tribunals regarding nationality law. Together these materials reflect the currently existing status of nationality under international law.
In addition, from being a stable field of law, nationality law has been subject to growing instrumentalization and change. International Standards on Nationality Law thus examines topical issues relating to nationality such as discriminatory practices in relation to gender, ethnicity and race, the status of surrogate-born children, diplomatic protection, the revocation of nationality of convicted terrorists, and ‘citizenship-for-sale’ programmes. Extensive bibliographical references have been included throughout, enabling the reader to identify relevant publications for further reading. Gerard-René de Groot is Professor of Comparative Law and Private International Law at Maastricht University and the University of Aruba (the Netherlands), and co-director of the Maastricht Centre for Citizenship, Migration and Development (MACIMIDE). He is the author of more than 500 publications in the areas of comparative law, nationality law and legal translation, and has acted on numerous occasions as expert-consultant to both national and international bodies dealing with matters of nationality law.
Olivier Willem Vonk holds a PhD from the European University Institute (Italy) and is currently a Marie Curie COFUND Fellow at the University of Liège (Belgium). Previously, he was a Marie Curie Outgoing Fellow at Maastricht University and a visiting researcher at Georgetown University (US). His publications include Dual Nationality in the European Union and Nationality Law in the Western Hemisphere (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers).
The authors are Consortium Members of the EUDO CITIZENSHIP Observatory and have collaborated with different organisations and institutions on issues of nationality law, including the Council of Europe, UNHCR, and the European Parliament.
|Nationality Requirements in Olympic Sports|
Who may compete for a country at the Olympics?
While the qualification rounds for the Rio Olympics have received huge media attention, the underlying question regarding which country an athlete may compete for only makes headlines when prominent athletes change the country for whom they are competing. Nationality requirements are an issue that has yet to be brought to the forefront of public discussion, as most recent works have only focussed on a small number of Olympic sports. This book explores the terra incognita of nationality requirements in Olympic sports, providing not only a comprehensive overview of the different sports, but also placing them in the wider context of the international standards of nationality law. The following questions are examined:
What are the eligibility criteria currently employed by the Olympic Sports? To what extent is it problematic to align these currently applicable eligibility criteria with international standards of nationality law? How can tensions that may exist between the criteria applied by the sporting federations and the international standards of nationality law be solved?