European Law

European Law



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Digital Markets in the EU Digital Markets in the EU
Marc Veenbrink, Anne Looijestijn-Clearie & Catalin S. Rusu (eds)

The opportunities presented by the internet have changed the way in which businesses conduct their commercial practices. Some businesses have emerged over the years due to the opportunities created by the digital era, while others have adapted their business models to cope with the new challenges of the ‘digital economy’. Digital markets are dynamic in nature and exhibit features which set them apart from the ‘traditional economy’: for example, players active in such markets are driven by the ‘winner takes all’ mirage, while the consumers of digital products or services often pay for their purchases by ‘disclosing their personal data’. Digitalisation is thus a phenomenon that has and will very likely continue to change our lives, regardless of the roles one may play in the digital markets context. The developments in the digital era occur at a mindboggling pace. Therefore, policymakers, legislators, and law enforcers need to keep up to date with these developments. This book examines some of the economic law challenges which the digitalisation of our society raises for policymakers and law enforcers. In this respect, both recent regulatory and enforcement (EU and domestic) initiatives are discussed. The common thread which ties this book’s contributions together relates to the question of whether we need regulation, or whether the market, and thus the current legal framework(s), are suitable for tackling the challenges of the digital era.   This volume in the Radboud Economic Law Series is based on the contributions presented at the second Radboud Economic Law Conference, held at Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands, on 9 June 2017.



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Aperçu de la Jurisprudence de la Cour Européenne des droits de l’homme 2016Aperçu de la Jurisprudence de la Cour Européenne des droits de l’homme 2016
Greffe de la Cour Européenne des droits de l’homme

Chaque année, la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme rend de multiples arrêts et un nombre plus élevé encore de décisions, alimentant ainsi sa jurisprudence déjà fort impressionnante. Une personne extérieure à la Cour peut dès lors avoir du mal à déterminer quelles sont les affaires qui marquent un tournant ou qui traitent de nouvelles questions. Un aspect du travail de la Cour auquel une attention croissante est accordée consiste donc à repérer ces affaires et à les diffuser dans un format pratique et accessible.   L’objet de cette série, Aperçu de la jurisprudence, disponible en français et en anglais, est de répondre à ce besoin en se concentrant sur les affaires les plus importantes qui sont traitées chaque année par la Cour. Celles-ci sont sélectionnées par la Direction du jurisconsulte de la Cour en fonction de leur intérêt jurisprudentiel. Outre les affaires choisies pour publication dans le Recueil des arrêts et décisions de la Cour, ce corpus contient des affaires qui soulèvent des questions d’intérêt général, qui posent de nouveaux principes ou qui développent ou précisent la jurisprudence. Il s’agit de faire ressortir les aspects saillants de telle ou telle affaire, pour permettre au lecteur d’en saisir la portée jurisprudentielle.



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Detentie van asielzoekersDetentie van asielzoekers
Wouter van der Spek, Evelien Flikweer en Ashley Terlouw

Als een vreemdeling, in bewaring of tijdens ophouding, een asielaanvraag indient ‘louter om uitzetting te verijdelen’, kan hij in bewaring worden gesteld op grond van artikel 59b Vreemdelingenwet. In dit boek wordt verslag ge-daan van een onderzoek naar de wijze waarop de Nederlandse overheid deze bepaling toepast bij eerste aanvragers asiel en hoe het systeem van rechtsbe-scherming functioneert.  Om deze vragen te beantwoorden, zijn 26 interviews afgenomen met be-trokkenen: ambtenaren van AVIM, KMar, IND en DT&V, advocaten en rechters, academici en belangenbehartigers en is een archiefonderzoek verricht naar 74 bewaringstrajecten van gedetineerde asielzoekers. Daarnaast is het rele-vante internationale en nationale recht geanalyseerd en is nagegaan of de praktijk hiermee in overeenstemming is. Niet-oprechtheid van de asielaanvraag, uitzetbaarheid en eventuele crimine-le antecedenten spelen een voorname rol bij inbewaringstelling. De meeste betrokken ambtenaren hebben weinig ervaring met de regeling en beschou-wen deze als complex. Zij beslissen of een lichter middel dan bewaring mo-gelijk is en genieten daarin grote discretie. Mede daarom beschrijven som-mige ambtenaren deze beslissing als een kwestie van gevoel. Het systeem van rechtsbescherming vertoont gebreken. Ook advocaten beschikken over te weinig ervaring met - en kennis van de regeling. Rechters bewaken het ultimum remedium karakter van vreemdelingenbewaring onvoldoende.  De uitkomsten van het onderzoek zien primair op detentie van asielzoekers, maar hebben ook belangrijke implicaties voor vreemdelingenbewaring in brede zin.



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Migration and Religious FreedomMigration and Religious Freedom
Carolus Grütters and Dario Dzananovic (eds.)

On 9 and 10 February 2017, experts from various backgrounds joined in a seminar organized by the Centre for Migration Law, Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence at Radboud University, Nijmegen in the Netherlands. The seminar focused on issues culminating at the intersection of migration, law and religion.   We aimed to identify the arguments that drive the discussion in situations presenting a conflict of state law and religious norms in the context of migration. Or, in biblical terms, is there an inherent conflict between Romans 13 (submission to governing authorities) and Matthew 25 (love the stranger), and if so, how is this conflict addressed?   In this book, we have included the key contributions to the seminar, thematically organized around four topics: (1) Religious Social Thought; (2) Application of religious freedom; (3) Comparative analysis of religious freedom laws; and (4) Practitioners’ views.   We hope this book will crystallize the arguments and drive further discussion on the important issues resulting from the interplay of migration, law and religion.   



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Overview of the Case-Law of the European Court of Human Rights 2016Overview of the Case-Law of the European Court of Human Rights 2016
Registry of ECHR

Every year, the European Court of Human Rights delivers a large number of judgments and an even greater number of decisions, thus adding to its already formidable body of case-law. This can make it difficult for people outside the Court to know which cases break new ground or address new issues. An increasingly important aspect of the Court’s work has thus become to identify such cases and to disseminate them in a convenient and accessible format. The annual Overview series, available in English and French, seeks to respond to that need by focusing on the most important cases the Court deals with each year. All the cases are selected by the Court’s Jurisconsult’s Directorate on the basis of their jurisprudential interest. In addition to the cases chosen for publication in the Court’s Reports of Judgments and Decisions, they include a number of other cases that raise issues of general interest, establish new principles, or develop or clarify the case-law. The approach has been to draw attention to the salient points, allowing the reader to appreciate the jurisprudential significance of a particular case.



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Uitbesteding van wetgevingUitbesteding van wetgeving
S.S. Zoeteman (red.)

De Nederlandse Vereniging voor Wetgeving (www.nvvw.eu) is er voor iedereen die geïnteresseerd is in of op de een of andere manier te maken heeft met wetgevingsvraagstukken. Via jaarvergaderingen en studiemiddagen biedt de vereniging vanuit verschillende perspectieven een forum voor een kritisch debat over wetgeving en wetgevingsbeleid. Tijdens de jaarvergaderingen wordt een wetgevingsonderwerp uitgediept aan de hand van aan de vereniging uitgebrachte preadviezen van deskundigen. Ook wordt jaarlijks een studiemiddag georganiseerd over een actueel wetgevingsonderwerp, zoals constitutionele toetsing en de Algemene Verordening Gegevensbescherming.   Het onderwerp van de Jaarvergadering 2017 was ‘Uitbesteding van wetgeving’. Het opstellen van wetgeving gebeurt traditioneel binnen de wetgevende macht. Niettemin is het altijd zo geweest dat ook personen of instanties buiten de wetgevende organisaties wetteksten concipiëren. Er is een aantal redenen om niet lichtzinnig over te gaan tot het laten opstellen van ontwerpen door externen, of om deze ontwerpen extra kritisch te bezien. In dit licht hebben drie auteurs een bijdrage geschreven over uitbesteding van wetgeving. Mr. Olaf Kwast geeft in zijn preadvies een algemene beschouwing van het onderwerp. Prof. dr. Renée van Schoonhoven (VU) focust in haar preadvies op de wetgeving inzake het lerarenregister, die zij in opdracht van het ministerie van OCW heeft ontworpen. Prof. mr. Willem Konijnenbelt bekijkt het onderwerp vanuit een normatief kader. De preadviseurs presenteerden hun bijdragen tijdens de jaarvergadering. Tezamen met de jaarrede van de voorzitter, het referaat van prof. mr. Frank van Ommeren (VU) en het verslag van de jaarvergadering zijn de preadviezen uitgegeven bij Wolf Publishers.  





Footprints of the 20th Century - Third Edition Footprints of the 20th Century - Third Edition
F.A.M. Alting von Geusau

This fifth and final volume offers a critical assessment of the state of the law of nations. In the twenty first century the world needs true global law anchored in the dignity of the human person rather than weak international law built on the interests of major sovereign states. One hundred years after the outbreak of the Great or First World War in 1914 and twenty-five years after the peaceful end of the Cold War in 1989, little appears to have been learnt from the scale of disasters that befell the world between the assassination in Sarajevo in 1914 and the annexation of Sebastopol in 2014. The failure to learn from history largely comes from unconverted political leaders and ideologies of progress. The birth of modern international law, assumed to have taken place in 1648, was no moment of progress, nor was the Congress of Vienna in 1815. The peace of Westphalia reduced the law of nations to interstate law. Moreover, today’s dismal record of major sovereign powers, nicknamed the ‘international community’, with such issues as human rights, the use of force, the abolition of nuclear weapons and peace in the Middle-East proofs that for justice and order a transition from international law to global law needs to be realized. Throughout the book one finds lightening examples of persons who, by their courage and dedication, could make the difference. Among them are Henri Dunant, Ruth Klüger, Andrei Sacharov, Nelson Mandela and Pope John-Paul II. Since the successful and peaceful revolution in 1989 ended the division of Europe and the bipolar nuclear stalemate, we collectively entered the brave new world of organised forgetting. Nevertheless, the footprints of that past century are still all around. This series is intended to identify, to explain and to remember, because the more things are said to change, the more things appear to remain the same. We must therefore learn from history if only to avoid repeating a few of the blunders of the past century. Prof. Jhr.Dr. Frans A.M.Alting von Geusau (1933) is professor (em.) of International Law and Western Cooperation at Tilburg University and Leiden University.





Footprints of the 20th Century - Third EditionFootprints of the 20th Century - Third Edition
F.A.M. Alting von Geusau

The story of European Unification is fascinating. In 1950, two sworn enemies – France and Germany – decide to seek reconciliation and European federal unity. As a first step, they created the European Coal and Steel Community together with Italy and the Benelux countries. The fathers of this new Europe were visionary persons. Does today`s student or scholar still know who Robert Schuman, Konrad Adenauer, Alcide de Gasperi or Willem Beyen were and what they stood for? At the time, the United Kingdom refused the invitation to join such a federal project. Under American pressure they asked for admission in 1961, entered in 1973 without ever accepting the federal project and decided to leave in March 2017 after a small majority voted for Brexit in June 2016. What began as a process of reconciliation between two enemies – France and Germany – became a peaceful enlargement of the European Union to twenty-eight Member States. The division of Europe between a Soviet dominated East and a Euro-Atlantic West is no more. This volume not only tells a success story. It also makes us understand why after more than sixty years the Germans lack the solidarity and the French the political vision to turn the Euro-crisis into true progress towards unity. Against the background of Europe`s long and turbulent history, this book may also help to understand why it is so difficult to overcome nationalism and to practice the virtue of solidarity so central to the Christian source of Europe as a civilization. Since the successful and peaceful revolution in 1989 ended the division of Europe and the bipolar nuclear stalemate, we collectively entered the brave new world of organised forgetting. Nevertheless, the footprints of that past century are still all around. This series is intended to identify, to explain and to remember, because the more things are said to change, the more things appear to remain the same. We must therefore learn from history if only to avoid repeating a few of the blunders of the past century. Prof. Jhr.Dr. Frans A.M.Alting von Geusau (1933) is professor (em.) of International Law and Western Cooperation at Tilburg University and Leiden University.





Footprints of the 20th Century - Third EditionFootprints of the 20th Century - Third Edition
F.A.M. Alting von Geusau

For the study of international relations, knowledge of the history of Western Cooperation in the Twentieth Century is essential. The third volume reviews the broader history from America’s entry in the First World War in 1917 and the start of the American Era in international relations one hundred years ago, to the inauguration of President Trump in 2017.
The American Era in world politics may well have come to its final end, when US President Donald Trump and British Prime Minister Theresa May agreed to build a new special, bilateral relationship on “America First” and “Global Britain”. The Atlantic Charter (1941) founded the special relationship between the United States and Great Britain, for that purpose. In reality, the special relationship was instrumental in creating the system of successful Western cooperation, characterized by new multilateral institutions – exactly the opposite of what President Trump and Prime Minister May had in mind for their special bilateral relationship, when they met in January 2017.
This volume on “Western Cooperation” deals with the American era in world politics, characterised by the creation of such international institutions as the League of Nations, the United Nations, ILO, IBRD, IMF and UNESCO. NATO, the principal subject of Part II in this volume, was considered to be the cornerstone of the Alliance of democracies since the onset of the Cold War.
In Part II, developments are examined in a circumscribed period – from the outbreak of the First World War in July 1914 to the celebration of NATO’s Sixtieth Anniversary on 4 April 2009, and the New Epilogue covers until the inauguration of Donald Trump as President of the United States in January 2017.
Since the successful and peaceful revolution in 1989 ended the division of Europe and the bipolar nuclear stalemate, we collectively entered the brave new world of organised forgetting. Nevertheless, the footprints of that past century are still all around. This series is intended to identify, to explain and to remember, because the more things are said to change, the more things appear to remain the same. We must therefore learn from history if only to avoid repeating a few of the blunders of the past century.
Prof. Jhr.Dr. Frans A.M. Alting von Geusau (1933) is professor (em.) of International Law and Western Cooperation at Tilburg University and Leiden University.





Footprints of the 20th Century - Third Edition Footprints of the 20th Century - Third Edition
F.A.M. Alting von Geusau

Since 1989, we refer to the whole post-war period as the “Cold War Era”. Such was not the case in 1968. At the time, the Cold War – in our perception – was behind us. We no longer felt to be in the midst of it. Europeans on the Western side of the Iron Curtain0 felt relatively at ease with Europe’s division. The era of Détente as we called it, was0 considered to be a fairly stable and long-lasting political condition, even after Soviet tanks crushed Dubcek’s socialism with a human face in Prague.
A strange year it was… 1968. Academic interest was focused on the war in Vietnam, non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, the French Gaullist challenge to the European Communities and the student revolt in Paris. The Western democracies promoted the process of détente on the basis of three political illusions. They assumed that common institutions between East and West would generate a sense of common interest in European security, facilitating negotiated solutions of outstanding problems. They expected East-West economic cooperation to promote reform from above in the East, towards more open societies. They hoped to foster democracy and respect for human
rights through cooperation in the cultural and human dimension. By 1989 all three of them had proven to be illusions. The end of the Soviet system came as a complete surprise to most politicians and to all Western advocates of détente in the Nineteen Eighties. The so-called dissidents won a peaceful victory over the one-party, repressive regimes in the East and helped to end the post-war division of Europe. Obviously, neither the (now former) communists nor the advocates of détente ever admitted their wrong. So they went all into the business of proclaiming a new era as a continuation of the old one. The greatest catastrophe of the Twentieth Century was Lenin`s creation of totalitarian Soviet Russia at the end of the Great War and not its collapse at the end0 of the Cold War, as president Putin said in 2005. This volume particularly challenges the past illusions of détente and the present approach of organized forgetting the past.
Since the successful and peaceful revolution in 1989 ended the division of Europe and the bipolar nuclear stalemate, we collectively entered the brave new world of organised forgetting. Nevertheless, the footprints of that past century are still all around. This0 series is intended to identify, to explain and to remember, because the more things are0 said to change, the more things appear to remain the same. We must therefore learn from history if only to avoid repeating a few of the blunders of the past century.
Prof. Jhr.Dr. Frans A.M.Alting von Geusau (1933) is professor (em.) of International Law and Western Cooperation at Tilburg University and Leiden University.  





Volume I - Cultural Diplomacy: Waging War by other MeansVolume I - Cultural Diplomacy: Waging War by other Means
F.A.M. Alting von Geusau

The peaceful collapse of the Soviet totalitarian, communist system has been a watershed of historic proportions in Europe and the world. In 1989, unexpectedly, Communism and the Cold War were behind us, they were bad and should be forgotten. The immediate post-1989 world presented itself as a new era of organised forgetting, as neither East nor West were interested in examining the prolonged period of acquiescence in absurdities. The Berlin Wall, paramount symbol of absurdity, had to be erased from the face of the earth and the memory of the people. Only much later have we become aware how much the heritage of repression and division still dominates our thinking. The principal organisations of Western and European cooperation have been enlarged Eastward, but the fruits of peaceful, spiritual revolution have turned sour. Far too little has changed for the better and far too many old habits have survived. For the question asked in this volume: Is bilateral cultural diplomacy waging war with other means? There still is no good answer. The surprise of 1989 has apparently paralyzed policies thereafter. Despite resounding declarations and non-binding resolutions on a new order, there was no vision, no strategy and no clear purpose. The basic approach was “more of the same”. Cultural diplomacy had no priority and budgets were cut in Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States. Since the successful and peaceful revolution in 1989 ended the division of Europe and the bipolar nuclear stalemate, we collectively entered the brave new world of organised forgetting. Nevertheless, the footprints of that past century are still all around. This series is intended to identify, to explain and to remember, because the more things are said to change, the more things appear to remain the same. We must therefore learn from history if only to avoid repeating a few of the blunders of the past century. Prof. Jhr.Dr. Frans A.M.Alting von Geusau (1933) is professor (em.) of International Law and Western Cooperation at Tilburg University and Leiden University.





WTO Law on Export Restrictions on Trade in GoodsWTO Law on Export Restrictions on Trade in Goods
Kelly Kuan Shang

This book examines a theoretical question which has been heavily debated due to its social relevance: is current WTO law sufficient to regulate export restrictions?   This book systematically reviews the law of the World Trade Organization (WTO) concerning export restrictions, guided by the principles of treaty interpretation and the WTO case law. Possibly contrary to the predominant view, this book respectfully submits that current WTO law is sufficient in regulating export restrictions; it is also capable of balancing the general disciplines of export restrictions and the various non-trade values.   A highlight of this book is its use of a range of case studies. These case studies deal with, inter alia, Hong Kong’s export ban of baby milk formula, the European Union’s economic sanctions against Russia, as well as New Zealand’s export quality requirement for wine, single export desk requirement for kiwifruits, and export ban of certain minerals with spiritual values. Analysis of these case studies revealed several underexplored types of export restrictions, and further demonstrated the possible relevance of a number of WTO provisions which have not yet been invoked before the WTO adjudicators.   Kelly Kuan Shang is a PhD Researcher at Maastricht University. She received a JD from the University of Hong Kong (St John’s College). She is admitted to practice law in Australia and New Zealand. Her research interests are international trade law and public international law.





The WTO Dispute Settlement System as a Legal Impediment to Iran’s Accession to the WTOThe WTO Dispute Settlement System as a Legal Impediment to Iran’s Accession to the WTO
Siamak Amoozeidi

While Iran already applied in 1996 for accession to the World Trade Organization, it is not a WTO Member yet. There are several factors which have contributed to the prolongation of Iran’s accession process. They are mostly not related to trade issues. Important among these non-trade related factors is a legal impediment that originates from a conflict between Iran’s Constitution and the WTO Dispute Settlement Understanding. It is this legal impediment, and how it can be overcome by using Iran’s domestic law mechanisms, which is the focus of this book.   Siamak Amoozeidi has been a legal advisor to Iran’s constitutional institutions and European companies. He has conducted research on human rights, crime prevention, controlling illicit drugs, judicial independence and public international law in Iran and, since 2008, on international economic, trade and investment law in the Netherlands.





TerrorismeTerrorisme
A. Fransen, J. Kerkhofs en P.A.M. Verrest

België en Nederland zijn de afgelopen jaren geconfronteerd met een ernstige dreiging van terrorisme. De aanslagen in Brussel op 22 maart 2016 hebben op een gruwelijke wijze laten zien wat gebeurt als die dreiging uitmondt in niets ontziende aanslagen op onze samenleving. Het materieel strafrecht is sinds 2001 aangepast om terrorisme beter te kunnen bestrijden. Die aanpassing heeft in Nederland en België plaatsgevonden grotendeels aan de hand van dezelfde EU- en andere internationale instrumenten. In de NVVS-preadviezen wordt die ontwikkeling beschreven en vervolgens uitvoerig ingegaan op de werking van het materiële strafrecht ter bestrijding van terrorisme in België en Nederland. Het uitgebreide overzicht van wetgeving en haar toepassing in concrete strafzaken is voor de rechtspraktijk in beide landen instructief. Het specifieke belang van de preadviezen is voorts dat zij een vergelijking mogelijk maken van het Belgische en Nederlandse recht. Want hoewel er sprake is van veel overeenkomsten, bestaan er ook verschillen in de werking van het materieel strafrecht gericht op de bestrijding van terrorisme. De preadviezen monden uit in een op België en Nederland gezamenlijk en op de landen individueel betrekking hebbende conclusie, alsmede enkele stellingen voor discussie.  





The many Faces of Crime for Profit and Ways of Tackling itThe many Faces of Crime for Profit and Ways of Tackling it
Petrus C. van Duyne,Jackie Harvey,Georgios A. Antonopoulos, Klaus von Lampe (eds.)

The national diversity of Europe is reflected in the diversity of its criminal landscape and history. From the north of Scotland to Ukraine one finds different focal points and patterns of crimes and criminal entrepreneurs. This does not necessarily lead to a corresponding reaction of the authorities. Some responses are the result of a gradually developed form of cross-border cooperation, as is the case between Poland and Germany, other authorities appear carried away with emotional decision making and an inflexible political correctness as is observed in the field of the sex service industry. In another country, in the adjacent field of child trafficking, we find the converse: no response as victims are not labelled as such. And no victim label, no criminal law policy.   Where the interactions between the upper- and underworld come into sight, this volume presents the reader with a select picture gallery of criminal faces: from corrupt football to remarkable criminal finances in Ukraine, to fraud and criminal abuse in the informal or quack health sector. Naturally, each face has its own pretences in order to hide its criminal background, be it large scale cannabis growing in the Netherlands or organised cybercrime from Romania to all countries in Europe.   Indeed, the criminal portrait series in this Cross-border Crime Volume shows that criminal Europe does not lead to a boring uniformity, despite the fear of globalism.   This sixteenth volume of the Cross-border Crime Colloquium contains the seventeen peer-reviewed contributions of 26 authors presented in 2016 at the Cross-border Crime Colloquium held at Northumbria University, Newcastle. The authors represent upcoming experts and established researchers in the field of (organised) crime for profit and related policies. The contributions are based on empirical research and independent analysis and provide new data and insights on which to build new theories and future research.  





The World’s StatelessThe World’s Stateless
Institute on Statelessness and Inclusion

International law protects the right of every child to acquire a nationality. Yet, childhood statelessness pervades all regions of the world. At least a third of the 15 million people who face life without a nationality today, are children. And, every ten minutes, another child is born stateless. The disconnect between the recognition of nationality as a fundamental child right and the reality of childhood statelessness presents a massive challenge, but also opens up a wealth of opportunities. Childhood statelessness is entirely preventable. It is never in a child’s best interests to be stateless, nor is it ever a child’s “fault” if they are left without nationality. We are proud to devote this edition of our flagship report, The World’s Stateless 2017, to exploring the urgency of and opportunities for addressing childhood statelessness. Over 50 experts and organisations have contributed material – essays, interviews, photographs and more. Collectively, they deal with a multitude of different dimensions of childhood statelessness, with chapters exploring the right to a nationality, challenges in the context of migration and displacement, the significance of the Sustainable Development Agenda, the mechanics of safeguards against statelessness for children, and litigation, legal assistance and other forms of moblisation as strategies to tackle childhood statelessness. As with every edition of The World’s Stateless, this publication also offers a more general overview of the state of statelessness globally in 2017. The Institute on Statelessness and Inclusion is an independent non-profit organisation, committed to ending statelessness and disenfranchisement through the promotion of human rights, participation and inclusion. For more information about our work, please visit www.institutesi.org.





Twee eeuwen dienstplicht, discipline, dienstweigering en desertieTwee eeuwen dienstplicht, discipline, dienstweigering en desertie
S. Meuwese

Deze studie waarop Stan Meuwese in maart 2017 in Tilburg promoveerde, is opmerkelijk genoeg de eerste en enige wetenschappelijke juridische studie over de dienstplicht. De ontwikkeling van de wetgeving en de rechtspraak vanaf de invoering van de dienstplicht in Nederland in februari 1811 door Napoleon tot aan de opkomst van de laatste dienstplichtigen in januari 1996 komt aan de orde. Tien chronologische hoofdstukken bevatten ieder vier paragrafen: de dienstplicht (hoe komt men in de krijgsmacht terecht), de discipline (hoe houdt men met behulp van het militair straf- en tuchtrecht de dienstplichtigen vast in de kazernes), de dienstweigering (hoe bleef men uit het leger) en desertie (hoe ontvluchtte men aan de krijgsmacht). De juridische legitimatie van de dienstplicht heeft in de loop van twee eeuwen steeds ontbroken. Arm of rijk, jongen of meisje, uit een groot gezin of uit een klein gezin, leek of priester: de rechtsgeschiedenis van de dienstplicht toont geen beeld van gelijke behandeling. De dienstplicht is in 1996 niet afgeschaft, maar opgeschort. Toch zal de formele dienstplicht ook op meisjes van toepassing verklaard worden. De rechtsgeschiedenis van de dienstplicht is ook het verhaal van mensen: Dirk Donker Curtius die in 1813 werd opgeroepen voor de Garde d’Honneur van Napoleon, J.K. van der Veer, die in Middelburg in 1896 de schutterijplicht weigerde gebaseerd op antimilitaristische motieven in de lijn van Tolstoi, Herman Groenendaal die in 1921 als dienstweigeraar in hongerstaking ging, sergeant Meijer die op 12 mei 1940 werd geëxecuteerd wegens verlaten van zijn post op de Grebbeberg, Poncke Princen, die in Indië in 1948 kant van de nationalisten koos, Rinus Wehrmann die in 1971 weigerde zijn lange haren te laten knippen, Hans Dona en Wim Schul die in 1971 op grond van een artikel in een VVDM-blad drie maanden tuchtklasse in Nieuwersluis kregen, Kees Vellekoop die in 1973 op grond van politieke bezwaren tegen de krijgsmacht in gevangenis kwam. De toekomst van de dienstplicht ligt achter ons: het is mooi geweest met de dienstplicht. prof. mr. drs. Ben Vermeulen, lid van de Raad van State en hoogleraar staatsrecht: Dit is ongetwijfeld het best geschreven proefschrift dat ik ooit heb mogen begeleiden. Het leest als een trein, is buitengewoon soepel geschreven, bevat veel woordspelingen en -rijmen, talloze petites histoires en is vaak buitengewoon humoristisch.  





Alternatieve Gassen en AansprakelijkheidAlternatieve Gassen en Aansprakelijkheid
D.G. Tempelman

Dit proefschrift behandelt de vraag wie aansprakelijk gesteld kan worden voor schade die ontstaat door groen-gasinvoeding en waterstofbijmenging. Allereerst worden de Europese en Nederlandse ontwikkelingen besproken in de gassector, in het bijzonder het proces van Europese marktintegratie en-liberalisatie waarbij de aandacht voornamelijk uitgaat naar het Nederlandse liberaliseringsproces. Als gevolg van het proces van marktliberalisatie is het aantal actoren toegenomen en heeft er een verschuiving van verantwoordelijkheden plaatsgevonden. Deze verantwoordelijkheden liggen deels in de wet verankerd en zitten deels in contracten besloten. Om deze reden worden de wettelijke taken en bevoegdheden en de contractuele relaties besproken. De contracten worden voor zover mogelijk privaatrechtelijk gekwalificeerd en kort inhoudelijk behandeld waarbij de aandacht uitgaat naar de afspraken omtrent aansprakelijkheid. De grondslagen voor de wettelijke aansprakelijkheid worden ook besproken, in het bijzonder de aansprakelijkheid voor gebrekkige zaken, gebrekkige opstallen, gevaarlijke stoffen en gebrekkige producten. Tevens wordt de aansprakelijkheid op grond van onrechtmatige daad behandeld. Om de centrale vraag te beantwoorden is gekozen voor een casusgerichte aanpak en worden twee scenario’s geschetst die antwoord geven op de hoofdvraag.





FRONTEX and the EBCGAFRONTEX and the EBCGA
Amélie Poméon

With this book, Amélie Poméon won the Hanneke Steenbergen Scriptie Prijs 2016 (prize for the best master thesis in the field of migration law in the Netherlands for the year 2015/2016). Hanneke Steenbergen taught migration law at the University of Leiden and was highly dedicated to the promotion of migration law education. After her death, a commemorative foundation was established, the primary purpose of which is to award a yearly prize stimulating research and interest in migration law issues. This book discusses the question to what extent Frontex (and, to a more limited degree, its successor, the European Border and Coast Guard Agency) can be held accountable for breaches of EU law acting both inside and outside EU territory. The issues covered include a detailed discussion of Frontex’ tasks and competences, the legal position and status of EU agencies, agency accountability and the distinction between the notions of accountability and responsibility as well as the extraterritorial applicability of EU law. It also addresses the question whether an individual complaint mechanism can and should be introduced within the Agency’s setup. “Amélie provides with her thesis an almost encyclopedic document about Frontex, the European Agency for management of operational cooperation at the external borders of the European Union. Frontex plays an important role in protecting external borders and therefore has a direct impact on many people’s lives. […] Worth mentioning is that she took an interesting approach by incorporating interviews with various experts on the ground. […] So, a very thorough piece of work on a problem that maintains to be in the forefront of every ones attention.” Jury report Hanneke Steenbergen scriptieprijs 2016





Medische aansprakelijkheidMedische aansprakelijkheid
S. Heirman, E.C. Huijsmans & R. van den Munckhof (red.)

Het kenniscentrum Milieu en Gezondheid is een initiatief van het gerechtshof ’s-Hertogenbosch en de rechtbank Oost-Brabant. Doel van het kenniscentrum is om bij te dragen aan de kwaliteitsverbetering van de rechterlijke oordeelsvorming op het vlak van milieu en gezondheid. Door het verzamelen, beheren en delen van kennis over de strafrechtelijke, civielrechtelijke en bestuursrechtelijke aspecten hiervan, ondersteunt het kenniscentrum rechters en juridisch medewerkers in het hele land op dit vlak. Eén van de werkzaamheden van het kenniscentrum is het organiseren van themadagen voor de leden van de zittende magistratuur en de juridische ondersteuning van alle gerechten. Op deze themadagen wordt steeds een onderwerp op het gebied van milieu en gezondheid nader belicht. Op vrijdag 8 april 2016 organiseerde het kenniscentrum een themadag over het onderwerp medische aansprakelijkheid, in samenwerking met het Studiecentrum Rechtspleging (SSR). In dit kennisdocument zijn bijdragen van een aantal sprekers en deelnemers van die themadag gebundeld. De auteurs in deze bundel:                  Prof. dr. R.J. van der Gaag Prof. mr. A.C. Hendriks Prof. mr. dr. A.R. Mackor Prof. mr J. Legemaate Mr. dr. R.P. Wijne Mr. P.M.J. Eken-de Vos Mr. P.J. van Eekeren Mr. drs. E.C. Huijsmans Mr. R. van den Munckhof







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