International Public Law & politics

International Public Law & politics



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Reports of Judgments and Decisions/Recueil des arrêts et décisions. Volume 2009-IVReports of Judgments and Decisions/Recueil des arrêts et décisions. Volume 2009-IV
European Court of Human Rights

The European Court of Human Rights is an international court based in Strasbourg and part of the Council of Europe. It rules on individual or inter-State applications alleging violations of the rights and freedoms set out in the European Convention on Human Rights by any of the Council’s 47 member States. The Court’s case-law makes the Convention a powerful living instrument for consolidating the rule of law and democracy in Europe.

The Reports of Judgments and Decisions is the official series of leading cases selected by the most senior judges at the Court because of their high jurisprudential interest. Each judgment and decision is published in English and French and is preceded by a summary – including case description, keywords and key notions – for ease of reference. The Reports are primarily designed for legal professionals, libraries and academics and complement the case-law information available on the Court’s website (www.echr.coe.int). 

La Cour européenne des droits de l’homme est une juridiction internationale qui siège à Strasbourg et fait partie du Conseil de l’Europe. Elle statue sur des requêtes individuelles ou interétatiques portant sur des allégations de violation, par l’un ou l’autre des 47 Etats membres du Conseil, des droits et libertés protégés par la Convention européenne des droits de l’homme. La jurisprudence de la Cour fait de la Convention un instrument dynamique et puissant participant au renforcement de l’état de droit et de la démocratie en Europe. 

Le Recueil des arrêts et décisions est la série officielle rassemblant des affaires importantes, sélectionnées en raison de leur grand intérêt jurisprudentiel par les juges composant le Bureau de la Cour. Les arrêts et décisions sont publiés en français et en anglais, et sont chacun précédés d’un sommaire – comprenant une description de l’affaire ainsi que les mots et notions clés caractérisant celle-ci – aux fins de faciliter les recherches. Le Recueil est destiné avant tout aux juristes ainsi qu’aux bibliothèques juridiques et aux universitaires, et vient compléter les informations sur la jurisprudence disponibles sur le site de la Cour (www.echr.coe.int). 





Reports of Judgments and Decisions/Recueil des arrêts et décisions. Volume 2009-IIIReports of Judgments and Decisions/Recueil des arrêts et décisions. Volume 2009-III
European Court of Human Rights

The European Court of Human Rights is an international court based in Strasbourg and part of the Council of Europe. It rules on individual or inter-State applications alleging violations of the rights and freedoms set out in the European Convention on Human Rights by any of the Council’s 47 member States. The Court’s case-law makes the Convention a powerful living instrument for consolidating the rule of law and democracy in Europe.

The Reports of Judgments and Decisions is the official series of leading cases selected by the most senior judges at the Court because of their high jurisprudential interest. Each judgment and decision is published in English and French and is preceded by a summary – including case description, keywords and key notions – for ease of reference. The Reports are primarily designed for legal professionals, libraries and academics and complement the case-law information available on the Court’s website (www.echr.coe.int). 

La Cour européenne des droits de l’homme est une juridiction internationale qui siège à Strasbourg et fait partie du Conseil de l’Europe. Elle statue sur des requêtes individuelles ou interétatiques portant sur des allégations de violation, par l’un ou l’autre des 47 Etats membres du Conseil, des droits et libertés protégés par la Convention européenne des droits de l’homme. La jurisprudence de la Cour fait de la Convention un instrument dynamique et puissant participant au renforcement de l’état de droit et de la démocratie en Europe. 

Le Recueil des arrêts et décisions est la série officielle rassemblant des affaires importantes, sélectionnées en raison de leur grand intérêt jurisprudentiel par les juges composant le Bureau de la Cour. Les arrêts et décisions sont publiés en français et en anglais, et sont chacun précédés d’un sommaire – comprenant une description de l’affaire ainsi que les mots et notions clés caractérisant celle-ci – aux fins de faciliter les recherches. Le Recueil est destiné avant tout aux juristes ainsi qu’aux bibliothèques juridiques et aux universitaires, et vient compléter les informations sur la jurisprudence disponibles sur le site de la Cour (www.echr.coe.int). 





Reports of Judgments and Decisions/Recueil des arrêts et décisions. Volume 2009-IIReports of Judgments and Decisions/Recueil des arrêts et décisions. Volume 2009-II
European Court of Human Rights

The European Court of Human Rights is an international court based in Strasbourg and part of the Council of Europe. It rules on individual or inter-State applications alleging violations of the rights and freedoms set out in the European Convention on Human Rights by any of the Council’s 47 member States. The Court’s case-law makes the Convention a powerful living instrument for consolidating the rule of law and democracy in Europe.

The Reports of Judgments and Decisions is the official series of leading cases selected by the most senior judges at the Court because of their high jurisprudential interest. Each judgment and decision is published in English and French and is preceded by a summary – including case description, keywords and key notions – for ease of reference. The Reports are primarily designed for legal professionals, libraries and academics and complement the case-law information available on the Court’s website (www.echr.coe.int). 

La Cour européenne des droits de l’homme est une juridiction internationale qui siège à Strasbourg et fait partie du Conseil de l’Europe. Elle statue sur des requêtes individuelles ou interétatiques portant sur des allégations de violation, par l’un ou l’autre des 47 Etats membres du Conseil, des droits et libertés protégés par la Convention européenne des droits de l’homme. La jurisprudence de la Cour fait de la Convention un instrument dynamique et puissant participant au renforcement de l’état de droit et de la démocratie en Europe. 

Le Recueil des arrêts et décisions est la série officielle rassemblant des affaires importantes, sélectionnées en raison de leur grand intérêt jurisprudentiel par les juges composant le Bureau de la Cour. Les arrêts et décisions sont publiés en français et en anglais, et sont chacun précédés d’un sommaire – comprenant une description de l’affaire ainsi que les mots et notions clés caractérisant celle-ci – aux fins de faciliter les recherches. Le Recueil est destiné avant tout aux juristes ainsi qu’aux bibliothèques juridiques et aux universitaires, et vient compléter les informations sur la jurisprudence disponibles sur le site de la Cour (www.echr.coe.int). 





Reports of Judgments and Decisions/Recueil des arrêts et décisions. Volume 2009-IReports of Judgments and Decisions/Recueil des arrêts et décisions. Volume 2009-I
European Court of Human Rights

The European Court of Human Rights is an international court based in Strasbourg and part of the Council of Europe. It rules on individual or inter-State applications alleging violations of the rights and freedoms set out in the European Convention on Human Rights by any of the Council’s 47 member States. The Court’s case-law makes the Convention a powerful living instrument for consolidating the rule of law and democracy in Europe.

The Reports of Judgments and Decisions is the official series of leading cases selected by the most senior judges at the Court because of their high jurisprudential interest. Each judgment and decision is published in English and French and is preceded by a summary – including case description, keywords and key notions – for ease of reference. The Reports are primarily designed for legal professionals, libraries and academics and complement the case-law information available on the Court’s website (www.echr.coe.int). 

La Cour européenne des droits de l’homme est une juridiction internationale qui siège à Strasbourg et fait partie du Conseil de l’Europe. Elle statue sur des requêtes individuelles ou interétatiques portant sur des allégations de violation, par l’un ou l’autre des 47 Etats membres du Conseil, des droits et libertés protégés par la Convention européenne des droits de l’homme. La jurisprudence de la Cour fait de la Convention un instrument dynamique et puissant participant au renforcement de l’état de droit et de la démocratie en Europe. 

Le Recueil des arrêts et décisions est la série officielle rassemblant des affaires importantes, sélectionnées en raison de leur grand intérêt jurisprudentiel par les juges composant le Bureau de la Cour. Les arrêts et décisions sont publiés en français et en anglais, et sont chacun précédés d’un sommaire – comprenant une description de l’affaire ainsi que les mots et notions clés caractérisant celle-ci – aux fins de faciliter les recherches. Le Recueil est destiné avant tout aux juristes ainsi qu’aux bibliothèques juridiques et aux universitaires, et vient compléter les informations sur la jurisprudence disponibles sur le site de la Cour (www.echr.coe.int). 





Assessment of Credibility by Judges in Asylum Cases in the EUAssessment of Credibility by Judges in Asylum Cases in the EU
Carolus Grütters, Elspeth Guild & Sebastiaan de Groot (eds.)

This book reports on the findings of a seminar on ‘Judicial Scrutiny and Credibility Assessment in Asylum Procedures’ organised by the Centre for Migration Law (CMR) of Radboud University Nijmegen and the International Association of Refugee Law Judges (IARLJ) and co-sponsored by the EU Jean Monnet Programme, hosted by Radboud University Nijmegen in the Netherlands on 16 April 2013.Along with the reflections of experts on credibility assessment, this book also contains the full text of the Credo Document: Assessment of Credibility in Refugee and Subsidiary Protection claims under the EU Qualification Directive - Judicial criteria and standards. This document was prepared for the IARLJ
in its role as a partner in the ‘Credo Project’. In this project participated, next to the IARLJ, the Hungarian Helsinki Committee (HCC), the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and Asylum Aid. We hope that this book will contribute to the dissemination of knowledge on the assessment of credibility in asylum cases amongst judges and in particular assist in decreasing the risk of denying protection of those who are in need of protection.





Global Human Rights Instrument Collection - Volume 7Global Human Rights Instrument Collection - Volume 7
S. Fennell (ed.)

Human rights are rights that you can invoke because you are human. They are aimed to preserve human nature, humanity and provide humane standards. Human rights translate into international norms that help protect people from all over the world from severe political, legal and social abuses. Law and morale are the safeguards of these inalienable rights. Human rights invoke strong claims and even stronger sentiments. To ensure them, governments are directly addressed, requiring compliance and enforcement. The Universal Human Rights Instruments collection aims to give a detailed and accurate overview of the instruments that have been created over the years to safeguard the human rights of people. The content of this collection ranges from universal human rights instruments to continental human rights instruments and discusses the direct enforcement of human rights by international courts and tribunals. The goal behind these extensive studies is to provide the international legal public with a reliable, detailed resource of prominent human rights instruments.

This volume includes the basic document on the African Court of Human Rights and Peoples Rights and some key legislation.





The Case Against Charles Taylor - volume 5The Case Against Charles Taylor - volume 5
R. van der Wolf (Ed.)


Charles Taylor was charged with 11 specific crimes committing during Sierra Leone’s Civil war from 1996 to 2002. The SCSL prosecutor originally has 17 counts on his indictment for war crimes and crimes against humanity in 2003. In 2006, the indictment was amended resulting in these 11 counts. Including the attacks on Kono and Makeni (well-known diamond regions) and Freetown in late 1998 and early 1999.

He was found guilty of the following crimes:
·         Five counts of war crimes: terrorizing civilians, murder, outrages on personal
dignity, cruel treatment, looting.
·         Five counts of crimes against humanity: murder, rape, sexual slavery, mutilating and beating, enslavement.
·        One count of other serious violations of international humanitarian law: recruiting
and using child soldiers. 

The crimes that Taylor committed where considered ‘some of the most heinous and brutal crimes recorded in human history’. Taylor is currently serving his sentence in the United Kingdom since 15 October 2013.

 

 

 





Laws of War and International Law - Volume 3Laws of War and International Law - Volume 3
Rene van der Wolf, Willem-Jan van der Wolf (eds.)

This third Volume in this series on Laws of War and International Law pertains
(with Volume 2) the period 1942 – 2012. The laws of war were born of confrontation between armed forces on the
battlefield. Until the mid-nineteenth century, these rules remained customary in
nature, recognised because they had existed since time immemorial and because
they corresponded to the demands of civilisation. All civilisations have developed rules aimed at minimising violence – even this institutionalised form of violence that we call war – since limiting violence is the very essence of civilisation. By making international law a matter to be agreed between sovereigns and by basing it on State practice and consent, Grotius and the
other founding fathers of public international law paved the way for that law to
assume universal dimensions, applicable both in peacetime and in wartime and  able to transcend cultures and civilizations. However, it was the nineteenth-century visionary Henry Dunant who was the true
pioneer of contemporary international humanitarian law. In calling for “some
international principle, sanctioned by a Convention and inviolate in character” to protect the wounded and all those trying to help them, Dunant took humanitarian law a decisive step forward. By instigating the adoption, in 1864, of the Geneva Convention for the amelioration of the condition of the wounded and sick in armed forces in the field, Dunant and the other founders of the International Committee of the Red Cross laid the cornerstone of treaty-based international humanitarian law. This treaty was revised in 1906, and again in 1929 and 1949. New conventions
protecting hospital ships, prisoners of war and civilians were also adopted. The
result is the four Geneva Conventions of 1949, which constitute the foundation of international humanitarian law in force today. Acceptance by the States of these Conventions demonstrated that it was possible to adopt, in peacetime, rules to attenuate the horrors of war and protect those affected by it.
Governments also adopted a series of treaties governing the conduct of hostilities: the Declaration of St Petersburg of 1868, the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, and the Geneva Protocol of 1925, which bans the use of chemical and  bacteriological weapons. The focus in this volume is on international humanitarian law, the prohibition of weapons and the UN.





The Sierra Leone Special Court Collection B-4.1.4The Sierra Leone Special Court Collection B-4.1.4
C. Tofan (ed.)

The Special Court for Sierra Leone is an independent judicial body set up to “try those who bear greatest responsibility” for serious violations , war crimes and crimes against humanity committed during the Sierra Leone Civil War which began in 1991 and was declared officially over on 18 January 2002.The Special Court was born at the request of the President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah, who on 12 June 2000 wrote a letter to United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan asking the international community to try those responsible for crimes during the conflict. The answer was prompt and on 14 August 2000 the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1315 requesting the Secretary-General to start negotiations with the Sierra Leonean government to create a Special Court.  On 16 January 2002 the UN and Government of Sierra Leone signed an agreement establishing the Court. The Court is located in Freetown.Currently , eleven people have been indicted by the Special Court, charged with war crimes , crimes against humanity and other serious violations of international humanitarian law. Indictments against two of the accused were dropped after their deaths.The trials are placed into 3 groups: Revolutionary United Front , Civil Defence Forces and Armed Forces Revolutionary Council, only one trial, the one of Charles Taylor, was moved to the International Criminal Court in The Hague.   Our series’ goal is to present the reasons that led to the establishment of The Special Court , and to offer an overview of the cases brought before The Court.   The B-4 volumes bring you the case against Fofana and Kondewa.





The Sierra Leone Special Court Collection B-4.1.5The Sierra Leone Special Court Collection B-4.1.5
C. Tofan (ed.)

The Special Court for Sierra Leone is an independent judicial body set up to “try those who bear greatest responsibility” for serious violations , war crimes and crimes against humanity committed during the Sierra Leone Civil War which began in 1991 and was declared officially over on 18 January 2002.The Special Court was born at the request of the President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah, who on 12 June 2000 wrote a letter to United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan asking the international community to try those responsible for crimes during the conflict. The answer was prompt and on 14 August 2000 the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1315 requesting the Secretary-General to start negotiations with the Sierra Leonean government to create a Special Court.  On 16 January 2002 the UN and Government of Sierra Leone signed an agreement establishing the Court. The Court is located in Freetown.Currently , eleven people have been indicted by the Special Court, charged with war crimes , crimes against humanity and other serious violations of international humanitarian law. Indictments against two of the accused were dropped after their deaths.The trials are placed into 3 groups: Revolutionary United Front , Civil Defence Forces and Armed Forces Revolutionary Council, only one trial, the one of Charles Taylor, was moved to the International Criminal Court in The Hague.   Our series’ goal is to present the reasons that led to the establishment of The Special Court , and to offer an overview of the cases brought before The Court.   The B-4 volumes bring you the case against Fofana and Kondewa.





The Sierra Leone Special Court Collection B-4.1.6The Sierra Leone Special Court Collection B-4.1.6
Claudia Tofan

The Special Court for Sierra Leone is an independent judicial body set up to “try those who bear greatest responsibility” for serious violations , war crimes and crimes against humanity committed during the Sierra Leone Civil War which began in 1991 and was declared officially over on 18 January 2002.The Special Court was born at the request of the President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah, who on 12 June 2000 wrote a letter to United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan asking the international community to try those responsible for crimes during the conflict. The answer was prompt and on 14 August 2000 the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1315 requesting the Secretary-General to start negotiations with the Sierra Leonean government to create a Special Court.  On 16 January 2002 the UN and Government of Sierra Leone signed an agreement establishing the Court. The Court is located in Freetown.Currently , eleven people have been indicted by the Special Court, charged with war crimes , crimes against humanity and other serious violations of international humanitarian law. Indictments against two of the accused were dropped after their deaths.The trials are placed into 3 groups: Revolutionary United Front , Civil Defence Forces and Armed Forces Revolutionary Council, only one trial, the one of Charles Taylor, was moved to the International Criminal Court in The Hague.   Our series’ goal is to present the reasons that led to the establishment of The Special Court , and to offer an overview of the cases brought before The Court.   The B-4 volumes bring you the case against Fofana and Kondewa.





Why Jamaica Wants to Protect Champagne: Intellectual Property Protection in EU Bilateral Trade AgreementsWhy Jamaica Wants to Protect Champagne: Intellectual Property Protection in EU Bilateral Trade Agreements
Anke Moerland

During the last fifteen years, bilateral trade agreements have become increasingly more common. All bilateral trade agreements concluded by the European Union and the United States contain standards of intellectual property protection and enforcement that go beyond the protection agreed upon in the TRIPS Agreement. This poses important challenges to developing countries who are parties to these agreements but often do not have the level of development and capacity to undertake innovative research which would allow them to take full advantage of the benefits of strong IP protection and enforcement. This book offers a legal and a political-scientific view on the phenomenon of strong intellectual property protection and enforcement in bilateral trade agreements to which developing countries are parties. After providing a comprehensive analysis of the IP rights and obligations contained in recent bilateral trade agreements concluded by the European Union, this book highlights the IP policy-making process in a developing country that has already accepted TRIPS-plus provisions, being Jamaica and the CARIFORUM region.





Concilie van Trente , Een jubileum van 450 jaarConcilie van Trente , Een jubileum van 450 jaar
Gerard Strijards

De tiara van de paus, een drie-kroon.De drie lagen verzinnebeelden de drie functies van het pauselijk ambt: leraar, priester en wereldlijk vorst. Maar ook de macht over hemel, hel en aarde. Drie rechtsmacht-aanspraken. Gerard Strijards schetst in een openbaar college de worsteling die de Katholieke Kerk doormaakte met de "nieuwigheden" die de reformatie meebracht. Die hadden betekenis voor die drie aanspraken. Vooral de aanspraak op de universele wereldlijke macht boven andere vorsten. Dat was niet vanzelfsprekend meer. Het Concilie van Trente (1543-1563) herijkte de plaats van de Kerk in het nieuwe internationale bestel van West-Europa. Zonder het te beogen ontwikkelden de Vaders daarbij nieuwe volkenrechtelijke principes in het verkeer tussen Kerk, als supranationale organisatie en staten. Principes die dat internationale recht ook vandaag nog hanteert in het verkeer met andere supranationale organisaties. Als bijzonder hoogleraar internationaal strafrecht is Strijards steeds alert op deze kerkelijke achtergrond van die principes en hun onstaansgeschiedenis, mét de daarbij behorende politieke spanningsvelden van het moment. In deze voordracht besteedt hij zo aandacht aan de staatkundige achtergronden van het Trents Concilie.



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The Stars of Eternal Truth and RightThe Stars of Eternal Truth and Right
Arthur Eyffinger

A mere three words established her lasting repute worldwide: Die Waffen nieder! The catchwords remained a pious wish to the present day, but they bespoke the astounding woman Bertha von Suttner was: intrepid, recalcitrant, forthright and spellbinding. Bertha was the type of woman the Belle Époque needed to turn the destiny of womanhood around. Enthused with the ideas of human progress, liberalism and individualism `Peace Bertha`, or `Red Bertha`, or `Jew-Bertha` campaigned passionately against social injustice or relapse in whatever shape it presented itself, be this overt militarism, rigid conservatism, the oppression of women, or anti-Semitism. The Hague Peace Conferences of 1899 and 1907 were the undisputable highlights of Bertha`s long career as engaged peace activist. To her, the Opening of the Peace Palace in 1913 was a dream come true. This publication focuses on Bertha`s tenets and aspirations with regard to the emerging International Tradition in The Hague. It does so by giving her the floor. The substance of this book captures the gist of her views and ideals by way of hundreds of citations gathered from her Memoirs, Diaries and Correspondence, and handpicked from the tracts, novels and papers that constitute the rich yield of her unstoppable scholarly, literary and journalistic endeavours. The sum total is a fascinating portrait of an intriguing woman and public figure, a steadfast advocate of Women`s Lib and the Cassandra of Peace on the eve of the Guns of August. Dr. Arthur Eyffinger (The Hague, 1947) is classicist and law historian.





The Mental Element in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal CourtThe Mental Element in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court
Kristina Janjac

This book examines the concept of guilt in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court as the most signifi cant factor in determining individual criminal responsibility for the most serious violations of international humanitarian law. The Rome Statute provides a general defi nition of guilt for the first time in the history of international criminal law, since none of the Statutes of previous international Tribunals contained general rules on this matter. The book also questions the regulation of guilt in the Rome Statute in light of the principle of legality.





The Ultimate Space Law Collection - Volume 1The Ultimate Space Law Collection - Volume 1
Dorina Andoni

The term "Space Law" refers to the body of international and national laws and customs governing human activities in outer space. For the past half century, the majority of outer space operations have been conducted by government agencies. We now, however, stand at the precipice of a new era in spaceflight. Following the retirement of the Space Shuttle, private companies are preparing to assume many of the missions traditionally undertaken by governments and to open outer space to the general public. At the same time, questions of ownership and commercialization, environmental protection, as well as peaceful and equitable use of outer space, are rising. As space activities grow, space law will have to face new challenges.

This first volume of the series "Ultimate Collection in Space Law" is consisted of the five international legal instruments, namely the Outer Space Treaty, the Rescue Agreement, the Liability Convention, the Registration Convention and the Moon Agreement, as well as, the most important declarations and principles as well as relevant Resolutions of the General Assembly. These instruments provide for non-appropriation of outer space by any one country, arms control, the freedom of exploration, liability for damage caused by space objects, the safety and rescue of spacecrafts and astronauts, the prevention of harmful interference with space activities, scientific investigation and the exploitation of natural resources in outer space and the settlement of disputes.

Dorina Andoni is an LLM student at Tilburg University and coordinator of the space law project at Global Law Association





Intellectual Property and Human Rights: is a Balance Possible? Intellectual Property and Human Rights: is a Balance Possible?
Sara Fiorentini

The intellectual property regime influences almost every sphere of economic life, having a significant impact on the protection and promotion of human rights. This succinct introduction gives a brief view of the long-standing issue concerning an intellectual property definition, as well as of its historical origins and evolutions, and of its fundamental fields of protection. The author provides a view on the relationship between intellectual property and human rigths that have for long been treated in virtual isolation from each other and investigates the fundamental international and regional provisions that have created an intersection between human rights law and intellectual property regimes. The book also includes the most relevant legal instruments on Intellectual Property and Human Rights.





Hybride overname van strafvervolgingHybride overname van strafvervolging
Marjon Dammers

In het Wetboek van Strafvordering is in april 2012 een nieuwe regeling opgenomen waardoor Nederland strafvervolging kan overnemen van internationale gerechten, zoals het International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia en het International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. Nederland heeft er dus een nieuw instrument bij om uitwerking te geven aan zijn verplichtingen ingevolge het complementariteitsbeginsel. Nationale vervolging en berechting van internationale misdrijven is een complexe aangelegenheid, in dit onderzoek worden de hybride War Crimes Chambers van Bosnië-Herzegovina vergeleken met het werk van de Nederlandse WIMkamer. Onderzocht wordt welke voorwaarden kunnen bijdragen aan de effectieve vervolging en berechting van internationale misdrijven op nationaal niveau. Deze nieuwe vorm van overname van strafvervolging staat centraal in dit onderzoek.



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Rape and International Criminal LawRape and International Criminal Law
Irene Piccolo

Only recently the international community has recognized the seriousness of rape as well as its nature of international crime punishable by international criminal tribunals. During the Balkan conflict in the last decade of XX century, the atrocities committed have awakened the conscience of those who, until then, had preferred to consider rape as a side effect of wars, both international and internal. The finding of camps where rape was conducted in a systematic way, for the mere solace of armed forces, and the use of rape as a tool of genocide (the infamous "ethnic  cleansing") have led to the creation of the first true international criminal tribunal (the ICTY) as well as to the inclusion, for the first time, of the crime of "rape" within the ratione materiae jurisdiction of international judges. Through the jurisprudence of the ICTY and of its twin tribunal (the ICTR, for Rwanda), the notion of rape and its different shades have been gradually outlined, and finally incorporated almost entirely by the Statute of the International Criminal Court. The aim of this book is to follow this evolution, by doing at the same time a historical reconstruction, in order to provide an overview of whatthe crime of rape is currently considered in international criminal law.





The Issue of: The crime of rape in international criminal lawThe Issue of: The crime of rape in international criminal law
Irene Piccolo


Rape was never really investigated as international crime until the recent conflicts in the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. The purpose of this monograph is to reconstruct, through an overview of case law and history, the way in which they tried to define and pursue rape at an international level. The transition from simple side effect of war crimes to actual evidence of them, up to be recognized as an integral part of many crimes under international law -therefore not necessarily linked to an ongoing conflict - it has been a long and tortuous passage. Along this path the case-law of the first two ad hoc tribunals has given a significant and important contribution, which was then largely incorporated by the Statute of the International Criminal Court, thus favoring the spread of the new conception of the crime at the international level. The following pages will deepen the way how objective and subjective elements of the crime of rape have been identified, by analyzing both the points now undisputed and especially those still under debate, such as the issue of “non consent”. There are still many pending cases before the two Courts, which include rape in their indictment; therefore it is possible that new ideas may come from the new international jurisprudence. However, in the last decade the notion of the crime of rape seems to have not been crystallized but at least consolidated around the definition incorporated in the Statute of the International Criminal Court. Certainly, at the moment, we have a much clearer vision than ten or twenty years ago. Fortunately.







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