International Public Law & politics

International Public Law & politics



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Human Rights Obligations of Armed Non-State Actors in Non-International Armed ConflictsHuman Rights Obligations of Armed Non-State Actors in Non-International Armed Conflicts
N. Pushparajah

This book explores the human rights obligations of armed non-state actors in non-international armed conflicts from the existing sources. This book seriously challenges the Statecentric view of human rights by breaking the traditional perception of international human rights regime that applies only to State actors. This book shows the necessity in considering the capacity of de facto regimes of armed non-state actors to incur human rights obligations in order to protect individuals and groups, and regulate their daily lives in the control areas of these armed non-state actors. Further, this book proves the capacity of armed non-state actors for violating human rights as well as bearing human rights obligations in non-international armed conflicts. The degree of human rights obligations of armed non-state actors, especially regarding civil and political rights, as well as obligations towards some vulnerable groups, has been confirmed in this book. Nevertheless it is very difficult to impose human rights obligations on armed nonstate actors without relying on other international norms such as international humanitarian law and international criminal law in non-international armed conflicts since these bodies of law give more detailed provisions to regulate the specific issue. In addition, the success of the fulfilment of obligations in international norms by armed non-state actors mostly depends on their capacity, willingness and intentions, including the ideology of a specific group.





The Right to Reparations under the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC)The Right to Reparations under the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC)
S. Kabalira

Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court established and vested the Court with the power to decide on reparations to victims. The concept of reparations to victims remains a controversial topic in international criminal law.   Does the Statute explicitly create victims’ right to reparations? How and why have we to distinguish between reparations under Article 75 and victim assistance or support from the Trust Fund created by Article 79 of the Statute? Does the Statute or international law embody substantive law to be applied to reparations to victims?   From a procedural perspective other questions arise: Has the Statute or the Court developed procedural law that allows to balance the interests of parties to proceedings before a court whose mission is primarily criminal? Where a conflict of jurisdiction arises between the International Criminal Court and national courts, as regards reparations against a convicted person, how can the risk be dispelled? What kind of reparations may redress victims of the most serious international crimes, such as crime of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes? Does there exist an effective legal framework to facilitate the implementation of reparations orders issued by the Court?   This book endeavours to discuss the major legal issues arising from the introduction of the concept of reparations to victims in international criminal law. More particularly, the book describes challenges in implementing Article 75 of the Rome Statute and attempts to suggest legal solutions thereto.





The recast Reception Conditions DirectiveThe recast Reception Conditions Directive
P. Minderhoud & T. Strik (eds)

On 20 July 2015 the deadline expired for the transposition of the recast Reception Conditions Directive (Directive 2013/33/EU of 26 June 2013 laying down standards for the reception of applicants for international protection (recast), OJEU 2013 L180/96).   The presentations on which this book is based, were originally given during a seminar on the Recast Reception Conditions Directive. This seminar took place at the Centre for Migration Law (Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence), Faculty of Law of the Radboud University Nijmegen, on Tuesday 8 December 2015.   In light of the very substantial level of interest, we publish a book on the results of this seminar in order to enable those who were not able to attend to benefit from the wealth of knowledge and information which was shared. The book is divided in two sections. The first section deals with the central themes and the problem issues of the recast Reception Conditions Directive. The second part of the book focuses on the implementation of the recast Reception Conditions Directive in a selected number of Member States.   This book offers insight in all the different aspects of the recast Reception Conditions Directive.





Exclusion clauses of the Refugee Convention in relation to national immigration legislations, European policy and human rights instrumentExclusion clauses of the Refugee Convention in relation to national immigration legislations, European policy and human rights instrument
Z. Yakut-Bahtiyar

Article 1F of the Refugee Convention excludes persons with respect to whom there are serious reasons for considering that they have committed a crime against peace, a war crime or a crime against humanity, a serious non-political crime outside the country of refuge prior to their admission to that country as a refugee or acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations. A 1F applicant loses any protection which would have been available under the Convention and, consequently, becomes ineligible for a residence permit under asylum. Though the exclusion of an asylum seeker basically leads to expulsion, this may be impossible to execute due to legal obstacles such as the non-refoulement principle. According to this principle, no one should be returned to a country where he fears for his life or freedom. This book is the result of a study into Article 1F, including an in-depth focus on the post-exclusion phase from a national and European perspective. In this study, the author is seeking solutions regarding the dilemmas surrounding the position of non-removable excluded asylum seekers. With its description of the applicable law as it stands, its theoretical framework and comparative elements, this research is valuable to legal practice and contributes to the continual debate regarding the possibilities and limits of developing a Common European Asylum System.





Privacy wetgevingPrivacy wetgeving
S. Fennell, R. Kroes, F. Koppejan, A. Thier (red.)

Met nieuwe Nederlandse regels sinds 1 januari 2016 en de in april 2016 aangenomen Europese Algemene Verordening Gegevensbescherming (AVG) is privacy weer volop in beweging na een lange periode van relatieve rust. In deze bundel tref je een overzicht aan van de belangrijkste algemene wet- en regelgeving op het gebied van privacy en de bescherming van persoonsgegevens. Deze bundel is daarmee een onmisbaar hulpmiddel voor iedereen die vanuit zijn of haar vakgebied met privacykwesties in aanraking komt. Zoals je van Privacy Company gewend bent, bevat ook deze versie suggesties van superheld Captain Privacy, de boetebedragen bij de betreffende artikelen en een handig trefwoordenregister. Bent u al voorbereidingen aan het treffen voor de inwerkingtreding van de AVG in 2018 of heeft u vragen over implementatie van andere relevante wet-en regelgeving? Wij helpen u graag op een
praktische manier met alle privacy gerelateerde vraagstukken door middel van advies, tooling en
training.  





Nationality Requirements in Olympic SportsNationality Requirements in Olympic Sports
A.S. Wollmann

Who may compete for a country at the Olympics?
While the qualification rounds for the Rio Olympics have received huge media attention, the underlying question regarding which country an athlete may compete for only makes headlines when prominent athletes change the country for whom they are competing. Nationality requirements are an issue that has yet to be brought to the forefront of public discussion, as most recent works have only focussed on a small number of Olympic sports. This book explores the terra incognita of nationality requirements in Olympic sports, providing not only a comprehensive overview of the different sports, but also placing them in the wider context of the international standards of nationality law. The following questions are examined:
What are the eligibility criteria currently employed by the Olympic Sports? To what extent is it problematic to align these currently applicable eligibility criteria with international standards of nationality law? How can tensions that may exist between the criteria applied by the sporting federations and the international standards of nationality law be solved?





INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ON NATIONALITY LAWINTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ON NATIONALITY LAW
G. R. de Groot & O.W. Vonk

While nationality law has traditionally been part of the nation-state’s ‘reserved domain’, recent decades have witnessed a growing body of international standards and guidelines in this area. This book provides the first comprehensive collection of multilateral international treaties, other international documents and case law of international tribunals regarding nationality law. Together these materials reflect the currently existing status of nationality under international law.
In addition, from being a stable field of law, nationality law has been subject to growing instrumentalization and change. International Standards on Nationality Law thus examines topical issues relating to nationality such as discriminatory practices in relation to gender, ethnicity and race, the status of surrogate-born children, diplomatic protection, the revocation of nationality of convicted terrorists, and ‘citizenship-for-sale’ programmes. Extensive bibliographical references have been included throughout, enabling the reader to identify relevant publications for further reading. Gerard-René de Groot is Professor of Comparative Law and Private International Law at Maastricht University and the University of Aruba (the Netherlands), and co-director of the Maastricht Centre for Citizenship, Migration and Development (MACIMIDE). He is the author of more than 500 publications in the areas of comparative law, nationality law and legal translation, and has acted on numerous occasions as expert-consultant to both national and international bodies dealing with matters of nationality law.
Olivier Willem Vonk holds a PhD from the European University Institute (Italy) and is currently a Marie Curie COFUND Fellow at the University of Liège (Belgium). Previously, he was a Marie Curie Outgoing Fellow at Maastricht University and a visiting researcher at Georgetown University (US). His publications include Dual Nationality in the European Union and Nationality Law in the Western Hemisphere (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers).
The authors are Consortium Members of the EUDO CITIZENSHIP Observatory and have collaborated with different organisations and institutions on issues of nationality law, including the Council of Europe, UNHCR, and the European Parliament.





De verhoudingen in het Koninkrijk der NederlandenDe verhoudingen in het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden
Prof. mr. P.P.T. Bovend’Eert Mr. drs. T.E.J.H. van Gennip S.P. Poppelaars LLM, BSc Mr. drs. J.J.J. Sillen (red)

Op 18 december 2015 vond de jaarlijkse staatsrechtconferentie plaats. De organisatie ervan was in handen van de vaksectie staatsrecht van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Radboud Universiteit te Nijmegen. De conferentie was gewijd aan de verhoudingen in het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden.
Op 10 oktober 2010 onderging het Koninkrijk een ingrijpende staatsrechtelijke en staatkundige hervorming. Krachtens artikel 1 van het Statuut voor het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden omvat het Koninkrijk sindsdien de landen Nederland, Aruba, Curaçao en Sint Maarten. De Caribische eilanden Bonaire, Sint Eustatius en Saba maken sindsdien elk deel uit van het staatsbestel van Nederland. Daarnaast zijn in het kader van artikel 38 Statuut enige zogeheten consensusrijkswetten tot stand gekomen op onder meer de terreinen van rechtspleging, rechtshandhaving en het financieel toezicht. Sinds 2010 legt artikel 12a Statuut vast dat bij rijkswet voorzieningen worden getroffen voor de behandeling van geschillen tussen het Koninkrijk en de landen. De conferentie volgde kort na de in 2015 gehouden evaluaties van de nieuwe verhoudingen in het Koninkrijk.
Deskundigen hebben tijdens de conferentie vanuit verschillende invalshoeken aandacht besteed aan deze nieuwe verhoudingen in het Koninkrijk. Deze bundel bevat de tekst van de voordrachten van de plenaire presentaties en de papers van deskundigen op het gebied van deze nieuwe verhoudingen in het Koninkrijk. Deze bijdragen gaan over (1) constitutionele toetsing en geschilbeslechting in het Koninkrijk, (2) vraagstukken van vertegenwoordiging, samenwerking en toezicht in autonome en Koninkrijksaangelegenheden, en (3) het vraagstuk van differentiatie of gelijkheid in het kader van de positie van de BES-eilanden in de Nederlandse rechtsorde.





Crimmigration law in the European UnionCrimmigration law in the European Union
A. Pahladsingh & J. Waasdorp

In the European Union the Return Directive aims at establishing common standards and procedures to be applied in Member States for returning illegally staying third-country nationals. An entry ban prohibits entry into and stay on the territory of all EU Member States (except the United Kingdom and Ireland) and Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein. This instrument is intended to have preventive effects and to foster the credibility of EU return policy. The clear message is that those who disregard migration rules in the Member States will not be allowed to re-enter any Member State for a specified period. Furthermore, the entry ban is an instrument which can be used to prevent or to counter terrorism. The use of criminal sanctions in the area of immigration opens the largely political debate on the legitimacy of the process of criminalizing foreigners. The merger between criminal law and immigration law has been classified as “crimmigration law”. The entry ban falls within the scope of crimmigration law. The relation between immigration law and criminal law and the compatibility of national penal measures imposed as a punishment for illegal migration is developed in the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union. There is a well-established jurisprudence on the interplay between domestic penal sanctions and the effectiveness of return policy. The effectiveness of the return process would be compromised by the application of a criminal penalty for violating the entry ban, because the primary objective of the Directive is not to prevent illegal presence in the territory but rather to put an end to it. The current issue is to determine to what extent the use of criminal sanctions by Member States is allowed in the situation that an entry ban is issued against an illegally staying third-country national. This research focuses on this issue.  





Narratives on Organised Crime in EuropeNarratives on Organised Crime in Europe
P. Van Duyne, M. Scheinost, G. Antonopoulos, J. Harvey & K. Von Lampe (eds.)

In this Cross-border Crime Volume a number of important European criminal narratives have been brought together. The chapters speak of criminal ‘narratives’ having a particular leitmotif around which elements of criminal phenomena are ordered such that a specific meaning can be conveyed. Corruption, organised and economic crime, fraud and money laundering are important themes for narratives about crime in Europe. The phenomenon of corruption has many common elements, which in each country become re-arranged into a national narrative or discourse. At present such narratives on corruption in Eastern Europe are highly relevant, in particular in view of the relationships with the EU. Also the organised crime narrative still has a prominent place in the European crime scene, whether it concerns Russian organised crime or cybercrime, targeting banks as well as individuals. The organisation of fraud and economic crime remains a serious challenge to consumers as well as the business sector. Amidst all these high-level forms of criminal organisation one can also find “traditional” versions of organised lawlessness, for example outlaw motorcycle gangs that continue to capture the imagination of law enforcement and the general public, not only Scandinavia.   This fifteenth volume of the Cross-border Crime Colloquium, held once a year at a different locatuion in Europe since 1999, contains the peer reviewed contributions of 18 internationally established and up-coming experts in the field of organised and economic crime, corruption, fraud and money laundering. The chapters are based on original empirical date and critical analysis and provide new insights in these fields, stimulating a critical discourse on criminal phenomena in Europe and beyond.





Researching the Nexus between Statelessness and Human TraffickingResearching the Nexus between Statelessness and Human Trafficking
L. Van Waas, C. Rijken, M. Gramatikov & D. Brennan

This publication presents the results of a two-year research project that aimed to develop and pilot a methodology for exploring the nexus between statelessness and human trafficking. It was a collaborative project in which scholars with expertise on statelessness (Laura van Waas), human trafficking (Conny Rijken), Subjective Legal Empowerment (Martin Gramatikov) and gender studies (Deirdre Brennan) worked side-by-side to design and execute research that cuts across disciplines. We hope that the publication will therefore be of interest to researchers and policy makers in each of these different fields. Included within this publication are two distinct but complementary reports: “A methodology for exploring the interaction between statelessness and human trafficking” (or Methodology Report) and the “The Nexus between Statelessness and Human Trafficking in Thailand” (or Thailand Report).





Wezenlijk Nederlands BelangWezenlijk Nederlands Belang
T. De Lange

Nederland wil een aantrekkelijk vestigingsland zijn voor hooggekwalificeerde kenniswerkers van buiten de EU. Het migratiebeleid biedt die kenniswerkers  de mogelijkheid om als zelfstandig ondernemers een bijdrage leveren aan de Nederlandse economie.  Toch maken jaarlijks maar een paar honderd buitenlandse ondernemers van die mogelijkheid gebruik en zijn de afwijzingspercentages hoog.   De Universiteit van Amsterdam onderzocht hoe  de toelating voor arbeid als zelfstandig ondernemer naar Nederland is geregeld, hoe de aanvraag om toelating op grond van het gehanteerde puntenstelsel wordt beoordeeld, wat het resultaat was van die beoordeling en hoe dat resultaat valt te verklaren.  Dat veel ondernemers niet in aanmerking komen voor toelating heeft meerdere oorzaken, zowel gelegen aan de kant van de ondernemers als aan de kant van de Nederlands overheid. Met betere informatievoorziening door de overheid, betere voorbereiding door de ondernemers, enkele aanpassingen aan het puntenstelsel en in de uitvoeringspraktijk, zouden meer buitenlandse ondernemers een kans krijgen om een bijdrage te leveren aan de Nederlandse economie. Daarmee dienen zij een wezenlijk Nederlands belang.   Tesseltje de Lange is juriste en al meer dan twintig jaar expert op het gebied van het migratierecht, in het bijzonder arbeidsmigratie en de arbeidsmarktpositie van migranten. Zij is verbonden aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam en de Universiteit van Tilburg en lid van de Adviescommissie voor Vreemdelingenzaken.





The Single Permit DirectiveThe Single Permit Directive
P. Minderhoud & T. Strik (eds)

On 25 December 2013, the deadline for the implementation of Directive 2011/98/EU on a Single Application Procedure for a Single Permit for Third-Country Nationals to Reside and Work in the Territory of a Member State and on a Common Set of Rights for Third-Country Workers Legally Residing in a Member State expired. This book highlights the central themes and problem issues concerning the decision making and transposition of this Directive. This single application procedure is meant to simplify existing procedures and to facilitate the inspection and control of the working migrants’ status. The Directive also provides for the right to equal treatment for all TCN legally working in a Member State, irrespective of the purposes for which they were initially admitted: both migrating workers and working migrants are protected. The contributions to this book are based on lectures presented on a seminar on the Single Permit Directive, organised in December 2014 by the Centre for Migration Law, Radboud University Nijmegen, co-sponsored by the Jean Monnet Programme. These contributions deal with the negotiations and the scope of the Directive, the issue of equal treatment, the effectiveness of TCN social rights protection and the transposition in Germany, Finland and France.





OVERVIEW OF THE CASE-LAW OF THE EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS - 2015OVERVIEW OF THE CASE-LAW OF THE EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS - 2015


Every year, the European Court of Human Rights delivers a large number of judgments and an even greater number of decisions, thus adding to its already formidable body of case-law. This can make it difficult for people outside the Court to know which cases break new ground or address new issues. 
An increasingly important aspect of the Court’s work has thus become to identify such cases and to disseminate them in a convenient and accessible format. This new annual Overview series, available in English and French, seeks to respond to that need by focusing on the most important cases the Court deals with each year. All the cases are selected by the Court’s Jurisconsult’s Directorate on the basis of their jurisprudential interest. In addition to the cases chosen for publication in the Court’s Reports of Judgments and Decisions, they include a number of other cases that raise issues of general interest, establish new principles, or develop or clarify the case-law. The approach has been to draw attention to the salient points, allowing the reader to appreciate the jurisprudential significance of a particular case. Contents

FOREWORD
INTRODUCTION

JURISDICTION AND ADMISSIBILITY
  Jurisdiction of States (Article 1)
  Admissibility conditions
      Exhaustion of domestic remedies (Article 35 § 1)

“CORE” RIGHTS
  Right to life (Article 2)
      Positive obligations
      Effective investigation
  Prohibition of torture and inhuman and degrading treatment and punishment (Article 3)
      Prohibition of torture
      Inhuman and degrading treatment
      Degrading treatment
      Effective investigation
      Emotional suffering of close relatives
      Armed forces
  Prohibition of slavery and forced labour (Article 4)
      Forced or compulsory labour
  Right to liberty and security (Article 5)
      Confinement in psychiatric hospital without consent (Article 5 § 1 (e))
      Proceedings for extradition with a view to prosecution in the requesting State (Article 5 § 1 (f ))
      Conditional release on bail (Article 5 § 3)
      Review of lawfulness of detention (Article 5 § 4)
      Speedy review of the lawfulness of detention (Article 5 § 4) PROCEDURAL RIGHTS IN CIVIL PROCEEDINGS
  Right to a fair hearing (Article 6 § 1)
      Applicability
      Access to a court 
      Fairness of the proceedings
      Independent tribunal
      Execution of a final judgment
  Right to an effective remedy (Article 13)

PROCEDURAL RIGHTS IN CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS
  Right to a fair trial (Article 6)
      Procedural fairness
      Impartial tribunal (Article 6 § 1)
      Presumption of innocence (Article 6 § 2)
      Defence rights (Article 6 § 3)
  No punishment without law (Article 7)
  Right of appeal in criminal matters (Article 2 of Protocol No. 7)

CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS
  Right to respect for one’s private and family life, home and correspondence (Article 8)
      Private life
      Private and family life
      Private life and home
      Private life and correspondence
      Family life
  Freedom of thought, conscience and religion (Article 9)
      Freedom of religion
  Freedom of expression (Article 10)
      Applicability
      Freedom of expression
      Freedom to impart information
      Freedom of the press
      Right to receive and impart information
  Freedom of assembly and association (Article 11)
      Freedom of peaceful assembly
      Right to strike
  Prohibition of discrimination (Article 14)
      Article 14 in conjunction with Article 3
  Protection of property (Article 1 of Protocol No. 1)
      Applicability
      Enjoyment of possessions
      Positive obligations
  Right to education (Article 2 of Protocol No. 1)
  Right to free elections (Article 3 of Protocol No. 1)

OTHER CONVENTION PROVISIONS
  Binding force and execution of judgments (Article 46)
      Pilot judgments
      Execution of judgments

LIST OF CITED CASES





OVERVIEW OF THE CASE-LAW OF THE EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS - 2014OVERVIEW OF THE CASE-LAW OF THE EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS - 2014


Every year, the European Court of Human Rights delivers a large number of judgments and an even greater number of decisions, thus adding to its already formidable body of case-law. This can make it difficult for people outside the Court to know which cases break new ground or address new issues. 
An increasingly important aspect of the Court’s work has thus become to identify such cases and to disseminate them in a convenient and accessible format. This new annual Overview series, available in English and French, seeks to respond to that need by focusing on the most important cases the Court deals with each year. All the cases are selected by the Court’s Jurisconsult’s Directorate on the basis of their jurisprudential interest. In addition to the cases chosen for publication in the Court’s Reports of Judgments and Decisions, they include a number of other cases that raise issues of general interest, establish new principles, or develop or clarify the case-law. The approach has been to draw attention to the salient points, allowing the reader to appreciate the jurisprudential significance of a particular case. Contents

FOREWORD
INTRODUCTION

JURISDICTION AND ADMISSIBILITY
  Jurisdiction of States (Article 1)
  Admissibility criteria
      Locus standi (Article 34)
      Exhaustion of domestic remedies (Article 35 § 1)
      Six-month time-limit (Article 35 § 1)

“CORE” RIGHTS
  Right to life (Article 2)
      Obligation to protect life
      Effective investigation
  Prohibition of torture and inhuman and degrading treatment or punishment (Article 3)
      Obligation to protect from sexual abuse
      Use of metal cage in court
      Disproportionate use of force
      Prison
      Extradition
      Removal pursuant to Dublin Regulation
      Sentence
  Articles 2 and 3 of the Convention in conjunction with Article 1 of
  Protocol No. 6
  Right to liberty and security (Article 5)
      Speedy review (Article 5 § 4)
  Prohibition of collective expulsion of aliens (Article 4 of Protocol No. 4)

PROCEDURAL RIGHTS IN CIVIL PROCEEDINGS
  Right to a fair hearing (Article 6)
      Applicability
      Access to a court (Article 6 § 1)
      Fairness of the proceedings (Article 6 § 1)

PROCEDURAL RIGHTS IN CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS
  Right to a fair hearing (Article 6)
      Fairness of the proceedings (Article 6 § 1)
      Presumption of innocence (Article 6 § 2)
      Defence rights (Article 6 § 3)
  Right of appeal in criminal matters (Article 2 of Protocol No. 7)
  Right not to be tried or punished twice (Article 4 of Protocol No. 7)

CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS 
  Right to respect for one’s private and family life, home and correspondence (Article 8)
      Applicability
  Private life
  Private and family life 
  Private life and correspondence
  Family life
  Home and correspondence
  Right to respect for private life and freedom to manifest one’s religion or belief (Articles 8 and 9)
  Freedom of expression (Article 10)
  Freedom of assembly and association (Article 11)
      Article 11 read in the light of Article 9
      Freedom of association
      Right to form and join trade unions
  Prohibition of discrimination (Article 14)
      Article 14 in conjunction with Article 8
      Article 14 in conjunction with Article 9
  Protection of property (Article 1 of Protocol No. 1)
      Enjoyment of possessions
  Right to education (Article 2 of Protocol No. 1)
  Right to free elections (Article 3 of Protocol No. 1)
  Freedom of movement (Article 2 of Protocol No. 4)

OTHER CONVENTION PROVISIONS
  Just satisfaction (Article 41)
      Pecuniary damage
  Binding force and execution of judgments (Article 46)
      Execution of judgments
      General measures
      Individual measures
  Obligation to furnish all necessary facilities (Article 38)

LIST OF CITED CASES  





APERÇU DE LA JURISPRUDENCE DE LA COUR EUROPÉENNE DES DROITS DE L’HOMME - 2015APERÇU DE LA JURISPRUDENCE DE LA COUR EUROPÉENNE DES DROITS DE L’HOMME - 2015


Chaque année, la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme rend de multiples arrêts et un nombre plus élevé encore de décisions, alimentant ainsi sa jurisprudence déjà fort impressionnante. Une personne extérieure à la Cour peut dès lors avoir du mal à déterminer quelles sont les affaires qui marquent un tournant ou qui traitent de nouvelles questions. Un aspect du travail de la Cour auquel une attention croissante est accordée consiste donc à repérer ces affaires et à les diffuser dans un format
pratique et accessible.

L’objet de cette nouvelle série, Aperçu de la jurisprudence, disponible en français et en anglais, est de répondre à ce besoin en se concentrant sur les affaires les plus importantes qui sont traitées chaque année par la Cour. Celles-ci sont sélectionnées par la Direction du jurisconsulte de la Cour en fonction de leur intérêt jurisprudentiel. Outre les affaires choisies pour publication dans le Recueil des arrêts et décisions de la Cour, ce corpus contient des affaires qui soulèvent des questions d’intérêt général, qui posent de nouveaux principes ou qui développent ou précisent la jurisprudence. Il s’agit de faire ressortir les aspects saillants de telle ou telle affaire, pour permettre au lecteur d’en saisir la portée jurisprudentielle. Table des matières

AVANT-PROPOS
INTRODUCTION

COMPÉTENCE ET RECEVABILITÉ
  Juridiction des États (article 1)
  Conditions de recevabilité
      Épuisement des voies de recours internes (article 35 § 1)

DROITS « CARDINAUX »
  Droit à la vie (article 2)
      Obligations positives
      Enquête effective
  Interdiction de la torture et des peines ou traitements inhumains ou dégradants (article 3)
      Interdiction de la torture
      Traitements inhumains ou dégradants
      Traitement dégradant
      Enquête effective
      Souffrance morale endurée par un proche
      Armée
  Interdiction de l’esclavage et du travail forcé (article 4)
      Travail forcé ou obligatoire 
  Droit à la liberté et à la sûreté (article 5)
      Internement forcé (article 5 § 1 e))
      Procédure d’extradition visant à faire poursuivre le requérant dans un État tiers (article 5 § 1 f ))
      Mise en liberté conditionnelle (article 5 § 3)
      Contrôle de la légalité de la détention (article 5 § 4)
      Contrôle à bref délai (article 5 § 4)

DROITS PROCÉDURAUX EN MATIÈRE CIVILE
  Droit à un procès équitable (article 6 § 1)
      Applicabilité
      Accès à un tribunal
      Équité de la procédure
      Tribunal indépendant
      Exécution d’une décision de justice définitive
  Droit à un recours effectif (article 13) DROITS PROCÉDURAUX EN MATIÈRE PÉNALE
  Droit à un procès équitable (article 6)
      Équité de la procédure
      Tribunal impartial (article 6 § 1)
      Présomption d’innocence (article 6 § 2)
      Droits de la défense (article 6 § 3)
  Pas de peine sans loi (article 7)
  Droit à un double degré de juridiction en matière pénale (article 2 du Protocole no 7)

DROITS CIVILS ET POLITIQUES
  Droit au respect de sa vie privée et familiale, de son domicile et de sa correspondance (article 8)
      Vie privée 
      Vie privée et familiale
      Vie privée et domicile
      Vie privée et correspondance
      Vie familiale 
  Liberté de pensée, de conscience et de religion (article 9)
      Liberté de religion
  Liberté d’expression (article 10) 
      Applicabilité
      Liberté d’expression
      Liberté de communiquer des informations
      Liberté de la presse
      Droit de recevoir et de communiquer des informations
  Liberté de réunion et d’association (article 11) 
      Liberté de réunion pacifique
      Droit de grève
  Interdiction de discrimination (article 14)
      Article 14 combiné avec l’article 3
  Protection de la propriété (article 1 du Protocole no 1)
      Applicabilité
      Respect des biens
      Obligations positives
  Droit à l’instruction (article 2 du Protocole no 1)
  Droit à des élections libres (article 3 du Protocole no 1)

AUTRES DISPOSITIONS DE LA CONVENTION
  Force obligatoire et exécution des arrêts (article 46)
      Arrêts pilotes
      Exécution des arrêts 

LISTE DES AFFAIRES CITÉES
  





APERÇU DE LA JURISPRUDENCE DE LA COUR EUROPÉENNE DES DROITS DE L’HOMME - 2014APERÇU DE LA JURISPRUDENCE DE LA COUR EUROPÉENNE DES DROITS DE L’HOMME - 2014


Chaque année, la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme rend de multiples arrêts et un nombre plus élevé encore de décisions, alimentant ainsi sa jurisprudence déjà fort impressionnante. Une personne extérieure à la Cour peut dès lors avoir du mal à déterminer quelles sont les affaires qui marquent un tournant ou qui traitent de nouvelles questions. Un aspect du travail de la Cour auquel une attention croissante est accordée consiste donc à repérer ces affaires et à les diffuser dans un format pratique et accessible.

L’objet de cette nouvelle série, Aperçu de la jurisprudence, disponible en français et en anglais, est de répondre à ce besoin en se concentrant sur les affaires les plus importantes qui sont traitées chaque année par la Cour. Celles-ci sont sélectionnées par la Direction du jurisconsulte de la Cour en fonction de leur intérêt jurisprudentiel. Outre les affaires choisies pour publication dans le Recueil des arrêts et décisions de la Cour, ce corpus contient des affaires qui soulèvent des questions d’intérêt général, qui posent de nouveaux principes ou qui développent ou précisent la jurisprudence. Il s’agit de faire ressortir les aspects saillants de telle ou telle affaire, pour permettre au lecteur d’en saisir la portée
jurisprudentielle. Table des matières AVANT-PROPOS
INTRODUCTION

COMPÉTENCE ET RECEVABILITÉ
  Juridiction des États (article 1)
  Conditions de recevabilité
      Locus standi (article 34)
      Épuisement des voies de recours internes (article 35 § 1)
      Délai de six mois (article 35 § 1)

DROITS « CARDINAUX »
  Droit à la vie (article 2)
      Obligation de protéger la vie
      Enquête effective
  Interdiction de la torture et des peines ou traitements inhumains ou dégradants (article 3)
      Obligation de protection contre les abus sexuels
      Utilisation d’une cage en métal dans un tribunal
      Utilisation disproportionnée de la force
      Prison
      Extradition
      Renvois en vertu du règlement Dublin
      Peine
  Articles 2 et 3 de la Convention combinés avec l’article 1 du
  Protocole no 6
  Droit à la liberté et à la sûreté (article 5)
      Contrôle à bref délai (article 5 § 4)
  Interdiction des expulsions collectives d’étrangers (article 4 du Protocole no 4)

DROITS PROCÉDURAUX EN MATIÈRE CIVILE
  Droit à un procès équitable (article 6)
  Applicabilité
  Accès à un tribunal (article 6 § 1)
  Équité de la procédure (article 6 § 1)

DROITS PROCÉDURAUX EN MATIÈRE PÉNALE
  Droit à un procès équitable (article 6)
      Équité de la procédure (article 6 § 1)
      Présomption d’innocence (article 6 § 2)
      Droits de la défense (article 6 § 3)
  Droit à un double degré de juridiction en matière pénale (article 2 du Protocole no 7)
  Droit à ne pas être jugé ou puni deux fois (article 4 du Protocole no 7)

DROITS CIVILS ET POLITIQUES
  Droit au respect de sa vie privée et familiale, de son domicile et de sa correspondance (article 8)
      Applicabilité
  Vie privée
  Vie privée et familiale
  Vie privée et correspondance
  Vie familiale
  Domicile et correspondance
  Droit au respect de sa vie privée et droit de manifester sa religion ou sa conviction (articles 8 et 9)
  Liberté d’expression (article 10)
  Liberté de réunion et d’association (article 11)
      Article 11 lu à la lumière de l’article 9
      Liberté d’association
      Droit de fonder des syndicats et de s’y affilier
  Interdiction de discrimination (article 14)
      Article 14 combiné avec l’article 8
      Article 14 combiné avec l’article 9
  Protection de la propriété (article 1 du Protocole no 1)
      Respect des biens
  Droit à l’instruction (article 2 du Protocole no 1)
  Droit à des élections libres (article 3 du Protocole no 1)
  Liberté de circulation (article 2 du Protocole no 4)

AUTRES DISPOSITIONS DE LA CONVENTION
  Satisfaction équitable (article 41)
      Dommage matériel
  Force obligatoire et exécution des arrêts (article 46)
      Exécution des arrêts
      Mesures générales
      Mesures individuelles
  Obligations de fournir toutes facilités nécessaires (article 38)

LISTE DES AFFAIRES CITÉES





From common market to common democracyFrom common market to common democracy
Jaap Hoeksma

Since its foundation in 1992 the EU has been developing from an international organisation towards a European democracy. The Maastricht Treaty introduced the citizenship of the Union, while the Treaty of Amsterdam included the concept of democracy in the core values of the EU and ‘Lisbon’ construed the European Union as a democracy without turning the Union into a State. This development has not been foreseen by politicians and scholars. According to the prevailing theories the EU should have become either a sovereign State of Europe or a Europe of sovereign States. The theory of democratic integration, which is presented in this monograph, replaces the outdated paradigm of the Westphalian system of international relations with the civic perspective of democracy and the rule of law. From this angle, it seems obvious that, if two or more democratic states decide to share the exercise of sovereignty in a number of fields with the view to attain common goals, the organisation they establish for this purpose should be democratic too. The theory of democratic integration allows for the development of the EU to be summarised in the maxim that the Union is evolving from a Common Market to a Common Democracy. ‘Hoeksma reveals as false the widespread belief that a monetary union without a state is not viable’.
Yves Mersch, Member of the Executive Board of the European Central Bank ‘..encourages all Europeans to participate in the Union’s democratic life’.
Martin Schulz, President of the European Parliament ‘The theory of democratic integration provides the EU with a model of thinking, within which the Union can evolve from a common market towards a common democracy’.
Internationale Spectator





European Citizenship at the CrossroadsEuropean Citizenship at the Crossroads


This book examines the changing role played by the European Union and international standards on loss and acquisition of nationality. It provides a comparative analysis of EU Member States regulations, administrative practices, court rulings and statistical data on questions related to loss of nationality and European citizenship. It assesses the multifaceted repercussions of the supranational venues of judicial and legal accountability over states autonomy and competences at times of deciding who is and who is not a citizen. The following questions are examined: to what the extent do EU Member States still hold the exclusive competence over domestic decisions in nationality matters? How do international and European legal principles and standards, as well as case-law by European courts progressively affect their margin of manoeuvre at times of deciding who is and who is not a ‘citizen’? What are the repercussions of their obligations in safeguarding citizenship of the Union? List of contents Preface 
   Gerard-René de Groot and Sergio Carrera Nuñez
About the Authors 
Abbreviations 
List of Tables and Figures 
Foreword 

   Zeta Georgiadou PART I: LOSS AND QUASI-LOSS OF NATIONALITY IN THE EU
Chapter 1 
Introduction: European Citizenship at a Crossroads
   Sergio Carrera Nuñez and Gerard-René de Groot
Chapter 2 
Survey on Rules on Loss of Nationality in International
Treaties and Case Law
   Gerard-René de Groot
Chapter 3 
A Comparative Analysis of Regulations on Involuntary
Loss of Nationality in the European Union
   Gerard-René de Groot and Maarten Peter Vink
Chapter 4
Reflections on Quasi-Loss of Nationality from
Comparative, International and European Perspectives
   Gerard-René de Groot and Patrick Wautelet
Chapter 5 
Mapping Statistics on Loss of Nationality in the EU:
A New Online Database
   Maarten Peter Vink and Ngo Chun Luk PART II: NATIONAL PERSPECTIVES AND DEVELOPMENTS
Chapter 6
Loss of Nationality in the Nordic Countries 185
   Eva Ersbøll
Chapter 7 
Deprivation of Citizenship:
The Latvian Example and EU Perspective
   Kristine Kruma
Chapter 8 
Is it Possible to Lose the Hungarian Nationality?
   Judit Tóth
Chapter 9 
Iberian Nationality Legislation and Sephardic Jews:
‘With due regard to European law’?
   Hans Ulrich Jessurun d’Oliveira
Chapter 10 
Attribution of Spanish Nationality to Children Born in Spain with the
Purpose of Avoiding Situations of Statelessness at Birth.
   Aurelia Álvarez Rodríguez and Guayasén
   Marrero González
Chapter 11 
How Much Does EU Citizenship Cost? The Maltese Citizenship-for-Sale
Affair: A Breakthrough for Sincere Cooperation in Citizenship of the Union?
   Sergio Carrera Nuñez PART III
ROTTMANN IN THE COURTS OF THE MEMBER STATES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION:
A collection of judgements, pending cases and caselaw notes 1. AUSTRIA
Gerard-René de Groot
1.1. CASE 1: An Austrian husband of Macedonian origin 
1.1.1. Text of the judgement 
1.1.2. Case Note 
1.2. CASE 2: An Austrian wife of Nigerian origin 
1.2.1. Text of the judgement 
1.2.2. Case Note 
1.3. CASE 3: An Austrian husband of Turkish origin 
1.3.1. Text of the judgement 
1.3.2. Case Note  2. BELGIUM
   Patrick Wautelet
2.1. CASE 4: Two Belgian children born in China 
2.1.1. Text of the judgement 
2.1.2. Case Note  3. CYPRUS
   Nicoletta Charalambidou
3.1. CASE 5 
3.1.1. Text of the judgement 
3.1.2. Case Note  4. DENMARK
   Eva Ersbøll
4.1. PENDING CASE 
4.1.1. Case description  5. GERMANY
   Gerard-René de Groot
5.1. CASE 6: The fate of Janko Rottmann 
5.1.1. Text of the judgement 
5.1.2. Case Note 
5.2. CASE 7: A German with Turkish roots 
5.2.1. Text of the judgement 
5.2.2. Case Note  6. LATVIA
   Kristine Kruma
6.1. CASE 8: A Latvian with a Russian background 
6.1.1. Text of the judgement: Court of First Instance 
6.1.2. Text of the judgement: Latvian Supreme Court 
6.1.3. Case Note  7. MALTA
   Daniela DeBono
7.1. CASE 9 
7.1.1. Text of the judgements: First Hall of the Constitutional Court 
7.1.2. Text of the judgements: Court of Appeals of the Constitutional Court 
7.1.3. Case Note  8. THE NETHERLANDS
   Ngo Chun Luk
8.1. Combined Case Note 
8.2. CASE 10: Parental error 
8.3. CASE 11: Syrian, not Iraqi 
8.4. CASE 12: Unintentional fraud 
8.5. CASE 13: Fictitious parentage 
8.6. CASE 14: Bigamous Egyptian 
8.7. CASE 15: Hidden criminal antecedents 
8.8. CASE 16: Identity fraud in Limburg 
8.9. Final Remarks 
8.10. Text of Judgments  9. THE NETHERLANDS
   Gerard-René de Groot
9.1. PENDING CASE 2: Dutch twins? 
9.1.1. Case description  10. SPAIN
   Guayasén Marrero González
10.1. CASE 17: Temporary residence permit on the grounds of exceptional circumstances (social         integration)
10.1.1. Text of the judgement 
10.1.2. Case Note  11. UNITED KINGDOM
11.1. PENDING CASE 3: A British Vietnamese involved in terrorism? 
11.1.1. Appeal: Court of Appeal of England and Wales 
11.1.2. Final appeal: Supreme Court – case description  12. EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS
   Gerard-René de Groot
12.1. PENDING CASE 4: A Maltese husband of Egyptian origin 
12.1.1. Case description 
12.1.2. Comments 

ANNEX 1.
Guidelines Involuntary Loss of European Citizenship (ILEC Guidelines 2015) 
Gerard-René de Groot, Maarten Peter Vink and Patrick Wautelet REFERENCES AND SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 
 





Religion, state, society and identity in transition UkraineReligion, state, society and identity in transition Ukraine
Rob van der Laarse, Mykhailo N. Cherenkov, Vitaliy V. Proshak, and Tetiana Mykhalchuk, eds.

State-society-identity relations could be defined as interaction(s) between state
institutions, societal groups and individuals living within the borders of a (political)
community/ state. These relations are never static, but vibrant, being in constant
transition under the influence of cultural, religious and other developmental
processes happening in individual and in society. Within the democratic structures
the relation between state, society and individual is more open-minded placing the
protection of citizens, preservation of citizens’ rights, freedoms, and responsibilities
as a departing point of dialogue taking in the perspective of the citizens’ cultural,
religious, and ethnic affiliations and backgrounds. Within totalitarian structures this
relation is hindered and is not fully developed.

The present publication addresses the transition in religion-state-societyidentity
relations in Ukraine within the three-dimensional approach focusing on
transdisciplinary perspectives on (1) political protests, (2) civil movements and/
or (3) revolution of dignity. Can the current events in Ukraine be defined mainly as
political protests, i.e. a transition in state structure? Or more as civil movements,
i.e. transition in society? Or is it a revolution of dignity, i.e. a transition in/of religion?
An international group of researchers and experts from universities in Australia,
Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland,
Russia, Ukraine, United Kingdom, and the United States of America have offered
their perspective on the events in Ukraine in attempting to equip the reader with a
glimpse of understanding of what happens in Ukraine and what consequences could
be expected. Fair recognition of the events happening in Ukraine at the present time
is already a first step towards reconciliation in the future.







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