Highlights

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European Citizenship at the Crossroads


This book examines the changing role played by the European Union and international standards on loss and acquisition of nationality. It provides a comparative analysis of EU Member States regulations, administrative practices, court rulings and statistical data on questions related to loss of nationality and European citizenship. It assesses the multifaceted repercussions of the supranational venues of judicial and legal accountability over states autonomy and competences at times of deciding who is and who is not a citizen. The following questions are examined: to what the extent do EU Member States still hold the exclusive competence over domestic decisions in nationality matters? How do international and European legal principles and standards, as well as case-law by European courts progressively affect their margin of manoeuvre at times of deciding who is and who is not a ‘citizen’? What are the repercussions of their obligations in safeguarding citizenship of the Union? List of contents Preface 
   Gerard-René de Groot and Sergio Carrera Nuñez
About the Authors 
Abbreviations 
List of Tables and Figures 
Foreword 

   Zeta Georgiadou PART I: LOSS AND QUASI-LOSS OF NATIONALITY IN THE EU
Chapter 1 
Introduction: European Citizenship at a Crossroads
   Sergio Carrera Nuñez and Gerard-René de Groot
Chapter 2 
Survey on Rules on Loss of Nationality in International
Treaties and Case Law
   Gerard-René de Groot
Chapter 3 
A Comparative Analysis of Regulations on Involuntary
Loss of Nationality in the European Union
   Gerard-René de Groot and Maarten Peter Vink
Chapter 4
Reflections on Quasi-Loss of Nationality from
Comparative, International and European Perspectives
   Gerard-René de Groot and Patrick Wautelet
Chapter 5 
Mapping Statistics on Loss of Nationality in the EU:
A New Online Database
   Maarten Peter Vink and Ngo Chun Luk PART II: NATIONAL PERSPECTIVES AND DEVELOPMENTS
Chapter 6
Loss of Nationality in the Nordic Countries 185
   Eva Ersbøll
Chapter 7 
Deprivation of Citizenship:
The Latvian Example and EU Perspective
   Kristine Kruma
Chapter 8 
Is it Possible to Lose the Hungarian Nationality?
   Judit Tóth
Chapter 9 
Iberian Nationality Legislation and Sephardic Jews:
‘With due regard to European law’?
   Hans Ulrich Jessurun d’Oliveira
Chapter 10 
Attribution of Spanish Nationality to Children Born in Spain with the
Purpose of Avoiding Situations of Statelessness at Birth.
   Aurelia Álvarez Rodríguez and Guayasén
   Marrero González
Chapter 11 
How Much Does EU Citizenship Cost? The Maltese Citizenship-for-Sale
Affair: A Breakthrough for Sincere Cooperation in Citizenship of the Union?
   Sergio Carrera Nuñez PART III
ROTTMANN IN THE COURTS OF THE MEMBER STATES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION:
A collection of judgements, pending cases and caselaw notes 1. AUSTRIA
Gerard-René de Groot
1.1. CASE 1: An Austrian husband of Macedonian origin 
1.1.1. Text of the judgement 
1.1.2. Case Note 
1.2. CASE 2: An Austrian wife of Nigerian origin 
1.2.1. Text of the judgement 
1.2.2. Case Note 
1.3. CASE 3: An Austrian husband of Turkish origin 
1.3.1. Text of the judgement 
1.3.2. Case Note  2. BELGIUM
   Patrick Wautelet
2.1. CASE 4: Two Belgian children born in China 
2.1.1. Text of the judgement 
2.1.2. Case Note  3. CYPRUS
   Nicoletta Charalambidou
3.1. CASE 5 
3.1.1. Text of the judgement 
3.1.2. Case Note  4. DENMARK
   Eva Ersbøll
4.1. PENDING CASE 
4.1.1. Case description  5. GERMANY
   Gerard-René de Groot
5.1. CASE 6: The fate of Janko Rottmann 
5.1.1. Text of the judgement 
5.1.2. Case Note 
5.2. CASE 7: A German with Turkish roots 
5.2.1. Text of the judgement 
5.2.2. Case Note  6. LATVIA
   Kristine Kruma
6.1. CASE 8: A Latvian with a Russian background 
6.1.1. Text of the judgement: Court of First Instance 
6.1.2. Text of the judgement: Latvian Supreme Court 
6.1.3. Case Note  7. MALTA
   Daniela DeBono
7.1. CASE 9 
7.1.1. Text of the judgements: First Hall of the Constitutional Court 
7.1.2. Text of the judgements: Court of Appeals of the Constitutional Court 
7.1.3. Case Note  8. THE NETHERLANDS
   Ngo Chun Luk
8.1. Combined Case Note 
8.2. CASE 10: Parental error 
8.3. CASE 11: Syrian, not Iraqi 
8.4. CASE 12: Unintentional fraud 
8.5. CASE 13: Fictitious parentage 
8.6. CASE 14: Bigamous Egyptian 
8.7. CASE 15: Hidden criminal antecedents 
8.8. CASE 16: Identity fraud in Limburg 
8.9. Final Remarks 
8.10. Text of Judgments  9. THE NETHERLANDS
   Gerard-René de Groot
9.1. PENDING CASE 2: Dutch twins? 
9.1.1. Case description  10. SPAIN
   Guayasén Marrero González
10.1. CASE 17: Temporary residence permit on the grounds of exceptional circumstances (social         integration)
10.1.1. Text of the judgement 
10.1.2. Case Note  11. UNITED KINGDOM
11.1. PENDING CASE 3: A British Vietnamese involved in terrorism? 
11.1.1. Appeal: Court of Appeal of England and Wales 
11.1.2. Final appeal: Supreme Court – case description  12. EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS
   Gerard-René de Groot
12.1. PENDING CASE 4: A Maltese husband of Egyptian origin 
12.1.1. Case description 
12.1.2. Comments 

ANNEX 1.
Guidelines Involuntary Loss of European Citizenship (ILEC Guidelines 2015) 
Gerard-René de Groot, Maarten Peter Vink and Patrick Wautelet REFERENCES AND SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 
 

Forthcoming Publications

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FRONTEX and the EBCGA
Amélie Poméon

With this book, Amélie Poméon won the Hanneke Steenbergen Scriptie Prijs 2016 (prize for the best master thesis in the field of migration law in the Netherlands for the year 2015/2016). Hanneke Steenbergen taught migration law at the University of Leiden and was highly dedicated to the promotion of migration law education. After her death, a commemorative foundation was established, the primary purpose of which is to award a yearly prize stimulating research and interest in migration law issues. This book discusses the question to what extent Frontex (and, to a more limited degree, its successor, the European Border and Coast Guard Agency) can be held accountable for breaches of EU law acting both inside and outside EU territory. The issues covered include a detailed discussion of Frontex’ tasks and competences, the legal position and status of EU agencies, agency accountability and the distinction between the notions of accountability and responsibility as well as the extraterritorial applicability of EU law. It also addresses the question whether an individual complaint mechanism can and should be introduced within the Agency’s setup. “Amélie provides with her thesis an almost encyclopedic document about Frontex, the European Agency for management of operational cooperation at the external borders of the European Union. Frontex plays an important role in protecting external borders and therefore has a direct impact on many people’s lives. […] Worth mentioning is that she took an interesting approach by incorporating interviews with various experts on the ground. […] So, a very thorough piece of work on a problem that maintains to be in the forefront of every ones attention.” Jury report Hanneke Steenbergen scriptieprijs 2016

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The many Faces of Crime for Profit and Ways of Tackling it
Petrus C. van Duyne,Jackie Harvey,Georgios A. Antonopoulos, Klaus von Lampe (eds.)

The national diversity of Europe is reflected in the diversity of its criminal landscape and history. From the north of Scotland to Ukraine one finds different focal points and patterns of crimes and criminal entrepreneurs. This does not necessarily lead to a corresponding reaction of the authorities. Some responses are the result of a gradually developed form of cross-border cooperation, as is the case between Poland and Germany, other authorities appear carried away with emotional decision making and an inflexible political correctness as is observed in the field of the sex service industry. In another country, in the adjacent field of child trafficking, we find the converse: no response as victims are not labelled as such. And no victim label, no criminal law policy.   Where the interactions between the upper- and underworld come into sight, this volume presents the reader with a select picture gallery of criminal faces: from corrupt football to remarkable criminal finances in Ukraine, to fraud and criminal abuse in the informal or quack health sector. Naturally, each face has its own pretences in order to hide its criminal background, be it large scale cannabis growing in the Netherlands or organised cybercrime from Romania to all countries in Europe.   Indeed, the criminal portrait series in this Cross-border Crime Volume shows that criminal Europe does not lead to a boring uniformity, despite the fear of globalism.   This sixteenth volume of the Cross-border Crime Colloquium contains the seventeen peer-reviewed contributions of 26 authors presented in 2016 at the Cross-border Crime Colloquium held at Northumbria University, Newcastle. The authors represent upcoming experts and established researchers in the field of (organised) crime for profit and related policies. The contributions are based on empirical research and independent analysis and provide new data and insights on which to build new theories and future research.  

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WTO Law on Export Restrictions on Trade in Goods
Kelly Kuan Shang

This book examines a theoretical question which has been heavily debated due to its social relevance: is current WTO law sufficient to regulate export restrictions?   This book systematically reviews the law of the World Trade Organization (WTO) concerning export restrictions, guided by the principles of treaty interpretation and the WTO case law. Possibly contrary to the predominant view, this book respectfully submits that current WTO law is sufficient in regulating export restrictions; it is also capable of balancing the general disciplines of export restrictions and the various non-trade values.   A highlight of this book is its use of a range of case studies. These case studies deal with, inter alia, Hong Kong’s export ban of baby milk formula, the European Union’s economic sanctions against Russia, as well as New Zealand’s export quality requirement for wine, single export desk requirement for kiwifruits, and export ban of certain minerals with spiritual values. Analysis of these case studies revealed several underexplored types of export restrictions, and further demonstrated the possible relevance of a number of WTO provisions which have not yet been invoked before the WTO adjudicators.   Kelly Kuan Shang is a PhD Researcher at Maastricht University. She received a JD from the University of Hong Kong (St John’s College). She is admitted to practice law in Australia and New Zealand. Her research interests are international trade law and public international law.

Recent Publications

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Digital Markets in the EU
Marc Veenbrink, Anne Looijestijn-Clearie & Catalin S. Rusu (eds)

The opportunities presented by the internet have changed the way in which businesses conduct their commercial practices. Some businesses have emerged over the years due to the opportunities created by the digital era, while others have adapted their business models to cope with the new challenges of the ‘digital economy’. Digital markets are dynamic in nature and exhibit features which set them apart from the ‘traditional economy’: for example, players active in such markets are driven by the ‘winner takes all’ mirage, while the consumers of digital products or services often pay for their purchases by ‘disclosing their personal data’. Digitalisation is thus a phenomenon that has and will very likely continue to change our lives, regardless of the roles one may play in the digital markets context. The developments in the digital era occur at a mindboggling pace. Therefore, policymakers, legislators, and law enforcers need to keep up to date with these developments. This book examines some of the economic law challenges which the digitalisation of our society raises for policymakers and law enforcers. In this respect, both recent regulatory and enforcement (EU and domestic) initiatives are discussed. The common thread which ties this book’s contributions together relates to the question of whether we need regulation, or whether the market, and thus the current legal framework(s), are suitable for tackling the challenges of the digital era.   This volume in the Radboud Economic Law Series is based on the contributions presented at the second Radboud Economic Law Conference, held at Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands, on 9 June 2017.

€ 49.95 Verkrijgbaar via bol.com of uw lokale boekhandel

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De kwetsbare psychisch gestoorde verdachte in het strafproces
Eline Gremmen

Dit onderzoek richt zich op de vraag op welke momenten en op welke wijze er in het Nederlandse strafproces tegemoetgekomen kan worden aan de kwetsbaarheid van de psychisch gestoorde verdachte. Er wordt bekeken of de Nederlandse regelgeving en de praktische uitvoering daarvan consistent en adequaat zijn in het licht van Europese standaarden.

Hierdoor wordt er inzicht verkregen op welke manier er gedurende het strafproces wordt omgegaan met de verdachte die lijdt aan een gebrekkige ontwikkeling of ziekelijke stoornis van de geestvermogens, of de wettelijke regelingen voldoende waarborgen bieden om de kwetsbaarheid van deze verdachte te compenseren en op welke wijze en op welk moment de kwetsbaarheid van deze verdachte gecompenseerd wordt. Dit leidt tot verschillende aanbevelingen en het voorstel voor één nieuw artikel dat ziet op de vervolging en berechting van procesonbekwame verdachten. Eline Gremmen studeerde Nederlands Recht aan het Utrecht Law College en aan de Erasmus Universiteit te Rotterdam. Van 2011 tot 2015 was zij werkzaam bij het arrondissementsparket Rotterdam. Begin 2015 maakte ze de overstap naar het Landelijk Parket te Rotterdam, waar ze aan het werk ging als senior parketsecretaris met als aandachtsgebieden drugs en witwassen. Sinds november 2016 is zij werkzaam als senior adviseur bij de Centrale Toetsingscommissie. Op 15 maart 2018 promoveerde zij als buitenpromovendus aan de Erasmus Universiteit te Rotterdam.  

€ 34.95 Verkrijgbaar via bol.com of uw lokale boekhandel

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Detentie van asielzoekers
Wouter van der Spek, Evelien Flikweer en Ashley Terlouw

Als een vreemdeling, in bewaring of tijdens ophouding, een asielaanvraag indient ‘louter om uitzetting te verijdelen’, kan hij in bewaring worden gesteld op grond van artikel 59b Vreemdelingenwet. In dit boek wordt verslag ge-daan van een onderzoek naar de wijze waarop de Nederlandse overheid deze bepaling toepast bij eerste aanvragers asiel en hoe het systeem van rechtsbe-scherming functioneert.  Om deze vragen te beantwoorden, zijn 26 interviews afgenomen met be-trokkenen: ambtenaren van AVIM, KMar, IND en DT&V, advocaten en rechters, academici en belangenbehartigers en is een archiefonderzoek verricht naar 74 bewaringstrajecten van gedetineerde asielzoekers. Daarnaast is het rele-vante internationale en nationale recht geanalyseerd en is nagegaan of de praktijk hiermee in overeenstemming is. Niet-oprechtheid van de asielaanvraag, uitzetbaarheid en eventuele crimine-le antecedenten spelen een voorname rol bij inbewaringstelling. De meeste betrokken ambtenaren hebben weinig ervaring met de regeling en beschou-wen deze als complex. Zij beslissen of een lichter middel dan bewaring mo-gelijk is en genieten daarin grote discretie. Mede daarom beschrijven som-mige ambtenaren deze beslissing als een kwestie van gevoel. Het systeem van rechtsbescherming vertoont gebreken. Ook advocaten beschikken over te weinig ervaring met - en kennis van de regeling. Rechters bewaken het ultimum remedium karakter van vreemdelingenbewaring onvoldoende.  De uitkomsten van het onderzoek zien primair op detentie van asielzoekers, maar hebben ook belangrijke implicaties voor vreemdelingenbewaring in brede zin.

€ 34.95 Verkrijgbaar via bol.com of uw lokale boekhandel

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