|Ethical Realism and the Rule of Law|
On 5th June 1989 an unknown man stopped the leading tank in a column entering Tiananmen Square, Beijing. His ultimate fate is unknown. His courage reflects the dilemma of brave people faced by the force of authority. The rule of law attempts to control excess of authority, but is often ineffective and illusory. Realist jurisprudence acknowledges that the law is often flawed and unfairly administered and that the rule of law is an illusion. This book discusses the question what then should the individual do? It suggests that ethical realism is a wise approach: acknowledging that in reality the law is flawed, but attempting when possible to do what ethics suggest, applying the classical concept of internal or virtue ethics. This approach has practical applications – it would be ethical to have a 2 state solution in the Middle East as was resolved by the UN General Assembly in 1947; it would be ethical for the UK to remain in the EEA established by the Treaty of Rome after 48.7% of UK voters wanted to remain and when the 2016 referendumand 2017 legislation referred only to the EU. In the early 1960s I attended the realist jurisprudence lectures at Oxford and came away with a belief that the rule of law is an ideal rather than a reality but a belief that ethics encourage the individual to do what can be done in practice to alleviate failures of the rule of law.
|WTO Law on Export Restrictions on Trade in Goods|
Kelly Kuan Shang
This book examines a theoretical question which has been heavily debated due to its social relevance: is current WTO law sufficient to regulate export restrictions? This book systematically reviews the law of the World Trade Organization (WTO) concerning export restrictions, guided by the principles of treaty interpretation and the WTO case law. Possibly contrary to the predominant view, this book respectfully submits that current WTO law is sufficient in regulating export restrictions; it is also capable of balancing the general disciplines of export restrictions and the various non-trade values. A highlight of this book is its use of a range of case studies. These case studies deal with, inter alia, Hong Kong’s export ban of baby milk formula, the European Union’s economic sanctions against Russia, as well as New Zealand’s export quality requirement for wine, single export desk requirement for kiwifruits, and export ban of certain minerals with spiritual values. Analysis of these case studies revealed several underexplored types of export restrictions, and further demonstrated the possible relevance of a number of WTO provisions which have not yet been invoked before the WTO adjudicators. Kelly Kuan Shang is a PhD Researcher at Maastricht University. She received a JD from the University of Hong Kong (St John’s College). She is admitted to practice law in Australia and New Zealand. Her research interests are international trade law and public international law.
|The WTO Dispute Settlement System as a Legal Impediment to Iranís Accession to the WTO|
While Iran already applied in 1996 for accession to the World Trade Organization, it is not a WTO Member yet. There are several factors which have contributed to the prolongation of Iran’s accession process. They are mostly not related to trade issues. Important among these non-trade related factors is a legal impediment that originates from a conflict between Iran’s Constitution and the WTO Dispute Settlement Understanding. It is this legal impediment, and how it can be overcome by using Iran’s domestic law mechanisms, which is the focus of this book. Siamak Amoozeidi has been a legal advisor to Iran’s constitutional institutions and European companies. He has conducted research on human rights, crime prevention, controlling illicit drugs, judicial independence and public international law in Iran and, since 2008, on international economic, trade and investment law in the Netherlands.
A. Fransen, J. Kerkhofs en P.A.M. Verrest
België en Nederland zijn de afgelopen jaren geconfronteerd met een ernstige dreiging van terrorisme. De aanslagen in Brussel op 22 maart 2016 hebben op een gruwelijke wijze laten zien wat gebeurt als die dreiging uitmondt in niets ontziende aanslagen op onze samenleving. Het materieel strafrecht is sinds 2001 aangepast om terrorisme beter te kunnen bestrijden. Die aanpassing heeft in Nederland en België plaatsgevonden grotendeels aan de hand van dezelfde EU- en andere internationale instrumenten. In de NVVS-preadviezen wordt die ontwikkeling beschreven en vervolgens uitvoerig ingegaan op de werking van het materiële strafrecht ter bestrijding van terrorisme in België en Nederland. Het uitgebreide overzicht van wetgeving en haar toepassing in concrete strafzaken is voor de rechtspraktijk in beide landen instructief. Het specifieke belang van de preadviezen is voorts dat zij een vergelijking mogelijk maken van het Belgische en Nederlandse recht. Want hoewel er sprake is van veel overeenkomsten, bestaan er ook verschillen in de werking van het materieel strafrecht gericht op de bestrijding van terrorisme. De preadviezen monden uit in een op België en Nederland gezamenlijk en op de landen individueel betrekking hebbende conclusie, alsmede enkele stellingen voor discussie.
|Deskundigenbewijs in het strafproces|
In het Nederlandse strafproces wordt regelmatig gebruik gemaakt van deskundigenbewijs. De inzet van deskundigen in strafzaken is echter niet vanzelfsprekend. Gerechtelijke dwalingen, bijvoorbeeld in de Schiedammer Parkmoordzaak, roepen de vraag op of in het strafproces op de juiste manier met deskundigen wordt omgegaan. De informatie van deskundigen behoort er immers aan bij te dragen dat in het strafproces de juiste beslissingen worden genomen. Met de Wet deskundige in strafzaken heeft de wetgever gereageerd op de discussie over de omgang met deskundigenbewijs. Is de wetgever er in geslaagd het strafproces zo in richten dat deskundigenbewijs een zo groot mogelijke bijdrage kan leveren aan de kwaliteit van de be-slissingen die in het strafproces worden genomen? Of kan de omgang met deskundigen-bewijs nog worden verbeterd? In dit onderzoek worden enkele knelpunten geconstateerd bij de omgang met deskundigenbewijs in het Nederlandse strafproces. Daarom worden aanbevelingen voor verbeteringen gedaan, gebaseerd op de omgang met deskundigenbewijs in het Engelse strafproces en door het Europese Hof voor de Rechten van de Mens en op inzichten over de omgang met deskundigenbewijs uit de filosofie, sociologie en argumentatieleer. Rolf Hoving is docent en onderzoeker strafrecht bij de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
|The many Faces of Crime for Profit and Ways of Tackling it|
Petrus C. van Duyne,Jackie Harvey,Georgios A. Antonopoulos, Klaus von Lampe (eds.)
The national diversity of Europe is reflected in the diversity of its criminal landscape and history. From the north of Scotland to Ukraine one finds different focal points and patterns of crimes and criminal entrepreneurs. This does not necessarily lead to a corresponding reaction of the authorities. Some responses are the result of a gradually developed form of cross-border cooperation, as is the case between Poland and Germany, other authorities appear carried away with emotional decision making and an inflexible political correctness as is observed in the field of the sex service industry. In another country, in the adjacent field of child trafficking, we find the converse: no response as victims are not labelled as such. And no victim label, no criminal law policy. Where the interactions between the upper- and underworld come into sight, this volume presents the reader with a select picture gallery of criminal faces: from corrupt football to remarkable criminal finances in Ukraine, to fraud and criminal abuse in the informal or quack health sector. Naturally, each face has its own pretences in order to hide its criminal background, be it large scale cannabis growing in the Netherlands or organised cybercrime from Romania to all countries in Europe. Indeed, the criminal portrait series in this Cross-border Crime Volume shows that criminal Europe does not lead to a boring uniformity, despite the fear of globalism. This sixteenth volume of the Cross-border Crime Colloquium contains the seventeen peer-reviewed contributions of 26 authors presented in 2016 at the Cross-border Crime Colloquium held at Northumbria University, Newcastle. The authors represent upcoming experts and established researchers in the field of (organised) crime for profit and related policies. The contributions are based on empirical research and independent analysis and provide new data and insights on which to build new theories and future research.
|Religious and Ideological Rights in Education|
Pablo Meix Cereceda & Jan de Groof (eds.)
This book seeks to provide a panorama of the issues arising from pluralism in the education system and of judicial responses to them around the globe. In it, thirty-four authors representing many different legal cultures have selected and commented the most significant judicial decisions in each of the jurisdictions analysed. The topics addressed include religious and cultural symbols; faith-based, religious, and citizenship education; freedom of teaching and scientific freedom; homeschooling; authorization, funding and other matters concerning denominational and private schools, among other legal disputes. The reader will easily sense many different ideological orientations throughout the book’s thirty-seven chapters, which is only the result of pluralism itself and of scientific freedom. Nevertheless, the editors believe that all of the authors have inherently favoured the desire to understand the challenges of pluralism and to convey knowledge that is relevant for a public debate rather than defending their own particular point of view. Indeed, facilitating debate might be considered to be the best achievement of a publication of this kind. The book is divided into six parts. The introductory part features a chapter by the editors concerning the implementation and justiciability of the right to education, and a second chapter by Prof. Charles L. Glenn providing an in-depth historical essay on the importance of debates over religion and education. The five remaining parts reflect a geographical division: Part II includes two chapters on international human rights bodies (the European Court of Human Rights and the United Nations Human Rights Committee); parts III to VI group national courts’ decisions by region: Europe, the Americas, Africa, and lastly Asia and Australia.
|Direct International Human Rights Obligations of non-State Actors|
In this book, addressing the reality that non-state actors do violate human rights in practice, which cannot be overlooked, Prof. Nicolás Carrillo-Santarelli argues that the foundations and main principles of international human rights law call for the regulation of direct nonstate obligations and responsibilities, given the potential failure of domestic actions and the limits of voluntary strategies. In part I, the author presents his ideas on why non-state abuses should be regarded as human rights violations and wrongful acts. In this sense, Chapter 1 explores why the protection of human dignity, being non-conditional, cannot depend on the presence of a State abuser. Chapter 2 explores the idea that every conduct contrary to human rights has legal relevance and requires a correlative appropriate legal response. Chapter 3 reinforces the previous ideas in light of the peremptory principle of non-discrimination; with Chapter 4 providing suggestions on when direct international action should take place. Part II, afterwards, studies why direct protection from non-state violations is possible and what legal mechanisms and institutions permit to make it effective. In Chapter 5, the author argues that the notion of international legal personality is not an obstacle since regarding addressees as subjects highlights the possibility of there being direct non-state international duties, which would not weaken existing human rights protections. Chapter 6 presents the argument that there are already implied human rights obligations of non-state actors, and that complementary obligations should be created. Chapter 7 explores the idea that non-state responsibility can coexist with that of other participants in violations, and that non-state responsibility is often a precondition of full reparations. The fi nal Chapter turns to the examination of the mechanisms that can be used to respond to or prevent non-state violations of human rights law. The book is based on the idea that the protagonists of human rights law are individuals, who deserve protection from all abusers, be them States, armed groups, international organizations, or other actors. Nicolás Carrillo-Santarelli has a PhD in International Law and International Relations from the Autónoma de Madrid University and is currently Associate Professor of International Law at La Sabana University, Colombia.
Polar Law represents a new frontier of comparative law. In particular, Polar Law deals with ancient questions, such as the legal status of Arctic indigenous peoples, particularly with regard to Inuit/Eskimo and Saami/Lapps, in the general context of protecting and promoting minority rights, as well as issues more recently come to the attention of scholars, as with the impact of climate change on the Arctic and Subarctic environment, protection of bio-cultural diversity in the polar regions, the exploitation of vast natural resources, including primarily oil, of the North Pole, the compatibility of scientific research and conservation of natural areas of the South Pole with the increase of tourism activities. The book examines, in an interdisciplinary perspective and with special regard to the issues of comparative public law, the actual problems of the polar areas, geographically at the edge of the world but politically and legally in his heart. Mauro Mazza is Associate Professor of Comparative Public Law at the Department of Law of the University of Bergamo (Italy). The researches for the preparation of this book were conducted in university departments, institutes and research centers of Denmark (Copenhagen and Aarhus), Norway (Oslo and Tromsø), Sweden (Stockholm and Uppsala), Finland (Helsinki).