International Public Law & politics

General information : International Public Law & politics

Highlights

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The World’s Stateless
Institute on Statelessness and Inclusion


To end statelessness worldwide by 2024. That is the ambition of the #ibelong campaign, spearheaded by UNHCR, which aims to galvanise governments, civil society, UN agencies and others into action. It is a bold but appropriate objective. Statelessness has been a cause of human suffering for too long, and unnecessarily so: it is a man-made phenomenon and bringing it to an end is – at least in theory – entirely feasible. The Institute on Statelessness and Inclusion is committed to helping to inform and catalyse solutions for statelessness. In the hope of contributing to a better sense of the task ahead, this inaugural World’s Stateless report explores currently available statistical data and discusses the challenges involved in accurately mapping or quantifying statelessness. From this analysis, the report distils recommendations to states, UNHCR and civil society on how to improve data collection and reporting on statelessness. The Institute on Statelessness and Inclusion is an independent, non-profit organisation dedicated to leading an integrated, inter-disciplinary response to the injustice of statelessness and exclusion. Established in August 2014, it is the first global centre of expertise and action committed to promoting the rights of stateless persons and reducing statelessness worldwide. We believe in the value of research, education, partnership and advocacy. We aim to develop and share our skills and expertise with partners in civil society, academia, the UN and governments, and to serve as a catalyst for change.

Recent Publications

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For Justice and Mercy
Ryan van Eijk, Gerard Loman, Theo W.A. de Wit (Eds.)

Publications on an international level and addressing prison chaplaincy from different (continental and disciplinary) angles are rare. Most publications regarding prison chaplaincy are monographies by theologians or prison chaplains, or books from (ex-)inmates witnessing their personal conversion. For Justice and Mercy offers international texts on the positioning of prison chaplaincy and examples from the praxis, as well as from several contexts and concepts. However, the focus is not exclusively on global perspectives. But the publication is certainly international for its contributors are academics or experienced prison chaplains from all continents who are offering their research and reflections from different scientific disciplines on aspects which are of interest for prison chaplaincy in general. Most articles are written from the catholic point of view. The reason is that the initiative for this publication was taken by the executive board of the International Commission of Catholic Pastoral Care (ICCPPC) to pay extra attention to its 65 years existence, and to the Year of Mercy.

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Crimmigration law in the European Union (Part 2)
A. Pahladsingh

In the European Union the Return Directive aims at establishing common standards and procedures to be applied in Member States for returning illegally staying third-country nationals (Article 1).  In part 2 of the serie on crimmigration in the EU this research is focusing on 2 other instruments of the Return Directive: the return decision and the detention.
As defined in Article 3 (4) a return decision “means an administrative or judicial decision or act, stating or declaring the stay of a thirdcountry national to be illegal and imposing or stating an obligation to return.” According to Article 6 of the Return Directive Member States are obliged to issue a return decision to any third-country national staying illegally in their territory, unless an express derogation is foreseen by Union Law.
As studies have showed in some countries of nationality there is for the illegal third-country national, who is expelled by EU Member States, a risk of criminalization in the form of criminal sanctions such as fines and detention. This is the situation when these countries of nationality criminalize emigration. Forced to return immediately to their countries of departure or nationality, these “inadmissibles” never fully become immigrants. I label this as double crimmigrations. These failed migrants become at least suspect citizens and they risk a form of double crimmigration in their countries of departure or nationality as they risk to be penalized twice: firstly by their involuntary return and secondly by the instigation of ciminal proceedings against them in the country of nationality. Double crimmigration should become a topic in EU return policy and security policy in which the EU should also formulate solutions.

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Stelselherzieningen
mr. S.S. Zoeteman

Met preadviezen van: mr. J.H. Meijer, mr. H.A. Oldenziel en mr. H.W. de Vos (allen ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu), mr. M.M. den Boer, mr. J.A. Janssen, mr. Y.L. Lont, mr. R. Buitenhuis, mr. M.J.P.C. Zeegers, mr. E. van Schooneveld en mr. M.T. Veldhuizen (allen ministerie van Volksgezondheid, Welzijn en Sport) en mr. R. Bekker

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Trust on the line
Esther Keymolen

Governments, companies, and citizens all think trust is important. Especially today, in the networked era, where we make use of all sorts of e-services and increasingly interact and buy online, trust has become a necessary condition for society to thrive. But what do we mean when we talk about trust and how does the rise of the Internet transform the functioning of trust? This books starts off with a thorough conceptual analysis of trust, drawing on insights from -amongst othersphilosophy and sociology to sharpen our understanding of the topic. The book explains how the arrival of large systems – such as the internet- has changed the character of trust which today is no longer based on interpersonal interactions but has become completely mediated by technologies. Based on the layered building plan of the Internet itself, a new conceptual lens called 4 Cs is developed to analyse and understand trust in the networked era. The 4Cs refer to the 4 layers which all have to be taken into account to assess trust online, namely: context,code, codification, and curation. The 4cs bring together the firsthand experiences of the user (context), the sort of technology that is being used (code), the legal implication (codification) and business interests (curation) in order to get a clear picture of the trust issues that may arise. In the final part of the book some real-life cases are discussed (digital hotel keys, Airbnb, online personalization) to illustrate how trust –analysed through the 4 Cs lens- might flourish or be challenged in our current networked era.

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Life Imprisonment
Caterina Scalise

The purpose of this scripture is to learn more on a particular kind of confinement in prison: the life imprisonment. This book discusses the issue of life imprisonment. Does it imply that inmates may remain in prison for the rest of their life? Often, the public opinion thinks that the worst criminals may be released after few years and may commit other crimes against the society. In some states an inmate can die in prison. Is this kind of punishment in line with the punishment purposes?   May this kind of punishment violate inmates’ human rights? These questions will be examined in light of law and jurisprudence, in order to discover if life sentence is efficient. Some academics had described the life imprisonment as a hidden and slow death penalty. The European Court of Human Rights has drafted clear boards. Regardless of supporting the concept or not, life imprisonment or not, a change in prison policies is required.

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Monitor Gesubsidieerde Rechtsbijstand 2015
S.L. Peters, M. van Gammeren-Zoeteweij & L. Combrink-Kuiters

Toegang tot het recht is een belangrijke pijler voor een goed functionerende rechtstaat. De Raad voor Rechtsbijstand maakt zich sterk voor het belang van burgers als zij tegen juridische problemen aanlopen. Dat doet de Raad op basis van de Wet op de Rechtsbijstand. De Raad wijst rechtzoekenden de weg, bevordert een goede toegang tot het recht en stimuleert goede kwaliteit van de rechtsbijstand. Ook fungeert de Raad als kenniscentrum op het gebied van de gesubsidieerde rechtsbijstand. Hierbij is de Monitor Gesubsidieerde Rechtsbijstand (MGR) een belangrijk instrument. Elk jaar publiceert de Raad voor Rechtsbijstand deze monitor om te beschrijven hoe de toegang tot, de vraag naar en het aanbod van gesubsidieerde rechtsbijstand zich ontwikkelen. Door periodiek op een uniforme wijze informatie te verzamelen over een beperkt aantal indicatoren wordt inzicht geboden in trends door de jaren heen. Om tevens inzicht te bieden in de effecten van specifieke beleids-of wetswijzigingen wordt ook verslag gedaan van aanvullende onderzoeken.

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The Right to Reparations under the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC)
S. Kabalira

Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court established and vested the Court with the power to decide on reparations to victims. The concept of reparations to victims remains a controversial topic in international criminal law.   Does the Statute explicitly create victims’ right to reparations? How and why have we to distinguish between reparations under Article 75 and victim assistance or support from the Trust Fund created by Article 79 of the Statute? Does the Statute or international law embody substantive law to be applied to reparations to victims?   From a procedural perspective other questions arise: Has the Statute or the Court developed procedural law that allows to balance the interests of parties to proceedings before a court whose mission is primarily criminal? Where a conflict of jurisdiction arises between the International Criminal Court and national courts, as regards reparations against a convicted person, how can the risk be dispelled? What kind of reparations may redress victims of the most serious international crimes, such as crime of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes? Does there exist an effective legal framework to facilitate the implementation of reparations orders issued by the Court?   This book endeavours to discuss the major legal issues arising from the introduction of the concept of reparations to victims in international criminal law. More particularly, the book describes challenges in implementing Article 75 of the Rome Statute and attempts to suggest legal solutions thereto.

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Human Rights Obligations of Armed Non-State Actors in Non-International Armed Conflicts
N. Pushparajah

This book explores the human rights obligations of armed non-state actors in non-international armed conflicts from the existing sources. This book seriously challenges the Statecentric view of human rights by breaking the traditional perception of international human rights regime that applies only to State actors. This book shows the necessity in considering the capacity of de facto regimes of armed non-state actors to incur human rights obligations in order to protect individuals and groups, and regulate their daily lives in the control areas of these armed non-state actors. Further, this book proves the capacity of armed non-state actors for violating human rights as well as bearing human rights obligations in non-international armed conflicts. The degree of human rights obligations of armed non-state actors, especially regarding civil and political rights, as well as obligations towards some vulnerable groups, has been confirmed in this book. Nevertheless it is very difficult to impose human rights obligations on armed nonstate actors without relying on other international norms such as international humanitarian law and international criminal law in non-international armed conflicts since these bodies of law give more detailed provisions to regulate the specific issue. In addition, the success of the fulfilment of obligations in international norms by armed non-state actors mostly depends on their capacity, willingness and intentions, including the ideology of a specific group.

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