Highlights

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European Citizenship at the Crossroads


This book examines the changing role played by the European Union and international standards on loss and acquisition of nationality. It provides a comparative analysis of EU Member States regulations, administrative practices, court rulings and statistical data on questions related to loss of nationality and European citizenship. It assesses the multifaceted repercussions of the supranational venues of judicial and legal accountability over states autonomy and competences at times of deciding who is and who is not a citizen. The following questions are examined: to what the extent do EU Member States still hold the exclusive competence over domestic decisions in nationality matters? How do international and European legal principles and standards, as well as case-law by European courts progressively affect their margin of manoeuvre at times of deciding who is and who is not a ‘citizen’? What are the repercussions of their obligations in safeguarding citizenship of the Union? List of contents Preface 
   Gerard-René de Groot and Sergio Carrera Nuñez
About the Authors 
Abbreviations 
List of Tables and Figures 
Foreword 

   Zeta Georgiadou PART I: LOSS AND QUASI-LOSS OF NATIONALITY IN THE EU
Chapter 1 
Introduction: European Citizenship at a Crossroads
   Sergio Carrera Nuñez and Gerard-René de Groot
Chapter 2 
Survey on Rules on Loss of Nationality in International
Treaties and Case Law
   Gerard-René de Groot
Chapter 3 
A Comparative Analysis of Regulations on Involuntary
Loss of Nationality in the European Union
   Gerard-René de Groot and Maarten Peter Vink
Chapter 4
Reflections on Quasi-Loss of Nationality from
Comparative, International and European Perspectives
   Gerard-René de Groot and Patrick Wautelet
Chapter 5 
Mapping Statistics on Loss of Nationality in the EU:
A New Online Database
   Maarten Peter Vink and Ngo Chun Luk PART II: NATIONAL PERSPECTIVES AND DEVELOPMENTS
Chapter 6
Loss of Nationality in the Nordic Countries 185
   Eva Ersbøll
Chapter 7 
Deprivation of Citizenship:
The Latvian Example and EU Perspective
   Kristine Kruma
Chapter 8 
Is it Possible to Lose the Hungarian Nationality?
   Judit Tóth
Chapter 9 
Iberian Nationality Legislation and Sephardic Jews:
‘With due regard to European law’?
   Hans Ulrich Jessurun d’Oliveira
Chapter 10 
Attribution of Spanish Nationality to Children Born in Spain with the
Purpose of Avoiding Situations of Statelessness at Birth.
   Aurelia Álvarez Rodríguez and Guayasén
   Marrero González
Chapter 11 
How Much Does EU Citizenship Cost? The Maltese Citizenship-for-Sale
Affair: A Breakthrough for Sincere Cooperation in Citizenship of the Union?
   Sergio Carrera Nuñez PART III
ROTTMANN IN THE COURTS OF THE MEMBER STATES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION:
A collection of judgements, pending cases and caselaw notes 1. AUSTRIA
Gerard-René de Groot
1.1. CASE 1: An Austrian husband of Macedonian origin 
1.1.1. Text of the judgement 
1.1.2. Case Note 
1.2. CASE 2: An Austrian wife of Nigerian origin 
1.2.1. Text of the judgement 
1.2.2. Case Note 
1.3. CASE 3: An Austrian husband of Turkish origin 
1.3.1. Text of the judgement 
1.3.2. Case Note  2. BELGIUM
   Patrick Wautelet
2.1. CASE 4: Two Belgian children born in China 
2.1.1. Text of the judgement 
2.1.2. Case Note  3. CYPRUS
   Nicoletta Charalambidou
3.1. CASE 5 
3.1.1. Text of the judgement 
3.1.2. Case Note  4. DENMARK
   Eva Ersbøll
4.1. PENDING CASE 
4.1.1. Case description  5. GERMANY
   Gerard-René de Groot
5.1. CASE 6: The fate of Janko Rottmann 
5.1.1. Text of the judgement 
5.1.2. Case Note 
5.2. CASE 7: A German with Turkish roots 
5.2.1. Text of the judgement 
5.2.2. Case Note  6. LATVIA
   Kristine Kruma
6.1. CASE 8: A Latvian with a Russian background 
6.1.1. Text of the judgement: Court of First Instance 
6.1.2. Text of the judgement: Latvian Supreme Court 
6.1.3. Case Note  7. MALTA
   Daniela DeBono
7.1. CASE 9 
7.1.1. Text of the judgements: First Hall of the Constitutional Court 
7.1.2. Text of the judgements: Court of Appeals of the Constitutional Court 
7.1.3. Case Note  8. THE NETHERLANDS
   Ngo Chun Luk
8.1. Combined Case Note 
8.2. CASE 10: Parental error 
8.3. CASE 11: Syrian, not Iraqi 
8.4. CASE 12: Unintentional fraud 
8.5. CASE 13: Fictitious parentage 
8.6. CASE 14: Bigamous Egyptian 
8.7. CASE 15: Hidden criminal antecedents 
8.8. CASE 16: Identity fraud in Limburg 
8.9. Final Remarks 
8.10. Text of Judgments  9. THE NETHERLANDS
   Gerard-René de Groot
9.1. PENDING CASE 2: Dutch twins? 
9.1.1. Case description  10. SPAIN
   Guayasén Marrero González
10.1. CASE 17: Temporary residence permit on the grounds of exceptional circumstances (social         integration)
10.1.1. Text of the judgement 
10.1.2. Case Note  11. UNITED KINGDOM
11.1. PENDING CASE 3: A British Vietnamese involved in terrorism? 
11.1.1. Appeal: Court of Appeal of England and Wales 
11.1.2. Final appeal: Supreme Court – case description  12. EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS
   Gerard-René de Groot
12.1. PENDING CASE 4: A Maltese husband of Egyptian origin 
12.1.1. Case description 
12.1.2. Comments 

ANNEX 1.
Guidelines Involuntary Loss of European Citizenship (ILEC Guidelines 2015) 
Gerard-René de Groot, Maarten Peter Vink and Patrick Wautelet REFERENCES AND SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 
 

Forthcoming Publications

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Background to the crisis in Syria and perspectives on human rights & humanitarian law violations
Yana Ballod

Since the beginning of the crisis in Syria, in mid-March 2011, the context in which it is regarded has been constantly changing. Four years later, the escalating violent armed conflict, fired from the “Arab Spring” movement has led to the rise of terrorist groups and a huge wave of refugees fleeing from the country. The present publication addresses the developments before 2011, as well as between mid-March 2011 and July 2015. It provides the factual background to the crisis and its analysis within the scope of humanitarian and human rights law. This volume is useful for understanding the roots of the crisis and its circumstances before summer 2015. A detailed research on what has happened and is happening in Syria brings up numerous unsolved issues within the international community. International law provides several possibilities for conflict resolution and stabilising crises: timely and effective response of international community represented by United Nations and its agencies, in particular United Nations Security Council; enforcement of the responsibility to protect; imposing sanctions; bringing to international justice and internationally addressing elements of the crisis, e. g. terrorism. However, with the involvement of different international actors, the implementation of international law depends on the particular behaviour of each of them. This way even erga omnes norms become voluntary. In the case of Syria, the application of international law instruments has been accompanied by hesitation. Cross-regional, regional and internal tensions prevented international community from shaping a coherent and decisive response to mass atrocities taking place in Syria. Thus, this research questions the existing system of leverages and sets an ambitious goal of finding out how to change it.

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Deskundigenbewijs in het strafproces
Rolf Hoving

In het Nederlandse strafproces wordt regelmatig gebruik gemaakt van deskundigenbewijs. De inzet van deskundigen in strafzaken is echter niet vanzelfsprekend. Gerechtelijke dwalingen, bijvoorbeeld in de Schiedammer Parkmoordzaak, roepen de vraag op of in het strafproces op de juiste manier met deskundigen wordt omgegaan. De informatie van deskundigen behoort er immers aan bij te dragen dat in het strafproces de juiste beslissingen worden genomen. Met de Wet deskundige in strafzaken heeft de wetgever gereageerd op de discussie over de omgang met deskundigenbewijs. Is de wetgever er in geslaagd het strafproces zo in richten dat deskundigenbewijs een zo groot mogelijke bijdrage kan leveren aan de kwaliteit van de be-slissingen die in het strafproces worden genomen? Of kan de omgang met deskundigen-bewijs nog worden verbeterd?   In dit onderzoek worden enkele knelpunten geconstateerd bij de omgang met deskundigenbewijs in het Nederlandse strafproces. Daarom worden aanbevelingen voor verbeteringen gedaan, gebaseerd op de omgang met deskundigenbewijs in het Engelse strafproces en door het Europese Hof voor de Rechten van de Mens en op inzichten over de omgang met deskundigenbewijs uit de filosofie, sociologie en argumentatieleer.   Rolf Hoving is docent en onderzoeker strafrecht bij de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.

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Migration and Religious Freedom
Carolus Grütters and Dario Dzananovic (eds.)

On 9 and 10 February 2017, experts from various backgrounds joined in a seminar organized by the Centre for Migration Law, Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence at Radboud University, Nijmegen in the Netherlands. The seminar focused on issues culminating at the intersection of migration, law and religion.   We aimed to identify the arguments that drive the discussion in situations presenting a conflict of state law and religious norms in the context of migration. Or, in biblical terms, is there an inherent conflict between Romans 13 (submission to governing authorities) and Matthew 25 (love the stranger), and if so, how is this conflict addressed?   In this book, we have included the key contributions to the seminar, thematically organized around four topics: (1) Religious Social Thought; (2) Application of religious freedom; (3) Comparative analysis of religious freedom laws; and (4) Practitioners’ views.   We hope this book will crystallize the arguments and drive further discussion on the important issues resulting from the interplay of migration, law and religion.   

€ 39.95 Verkrijgbaar via bol.com of uw lokale boekhandel

Recent Publications

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Legislative Proposal to Introduce Provisions Governing Restorative Justice Services into the Dutch Code of Criminal Procedre and Explanatory Memorandum
Jacques Claessen, John Blad, Gert Jan Slump, Theo de Roos, Anneke van Hoek, Annemieke Wolthuis

This publication contains the revised version of a legislative proposal, drafted by and at the initiative of citizens, to introduce restorative justice provisions into the Dutch Code of Criminal Procedure. The initiative to this Legislative Proposal and its Explanatory Memorandum was taken within the framework of the impending introduction of the new Dutch Code of Criminal Procedure. It was drafted by an Initiator Group consisting of persons working for Maastricht University and the Dutch Restorative Justice Foundation in collaboration with a think tank made up of professionals from the fields of criminal law and restorative justice. This legislative draft was presented to the Minister of Legal Protection, drs S. Dekker, and to the members of the Permanent Commission for Justice and Security of the Lower Chamber on 27 June 2018. The authors feel that the official legislative process can begin in earnest, now that a revised version of the Legislative Proposal has been completed. Being able to deal with criminal matters in a more restorative manner is after all not a luxury, but a necessity.   ‘This initiative has generated an incentive and a standardisation that are of value to an evolving justice practice. The role which this revised version has assigned to the Mediation Offices is in tune with the way in which mediation in criminal cases is organised in the work processes of Public Prosecutors’ Offices and the Courts.”  mr Judith Uitermark - judge and national coordinator mediation in criminal cases. 

€ 9.95 Verkrijgbaar via bol.com of uw lokale boekhandel

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Digital Markets in the EU
Marc Veenbrink, Anne Looijestijn-Clearie & Catalin S. Rusu (eds)

The opportunities presented by the internet have changed the way in which businesses conduct their commercial practices. Some businesses have emerged over the years due to the opportunities created by the digital era, while others have adapted their business models to cope with the new challenges of the ‘digital economy’. Digital markets are dynamic in nature and exhibit features which set them apart from the ‘traditional economy’: for example, players active in such markets are driven by the ‘winner takes all’ mirage, while the consumers of digital products or services often pay for their purchases by ‘disclosing their personal data’. Digitalisation is thus a phenomenon that has and will very likely continue to change our lives, regardless of the roles one may play in the digital markets context. The developments in the digital era occur at a mindboggling pace. Therefore, policymakers, legislators, and law enforcers need to keep up to date with these developments. This book examines some of the economic law challenges which the digitalisation of our society raises for policymakers and law enforcers. In this respect, both recent regulatory and enforcement (EU and domestic) initiatives are discussed. The common thread which ties this book’s contributions together relates to the question of whether we need regulation, or whether the market, and thus the current legal framework(s), are suitable for tackling the challenges of the digital era.   This volume in the Radboud Economic Law Series is based on the contributions presented at the second Radboud Economic Law Conference, held at Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands, on 9 June 2017.

€ 49.95 Verkrijgbaar via bol.com of uw lokale boekhandel

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Voorstel van Wet strekkende tot de invoering van herstelrechtvoorzieningen in het Wetboek van Strafvordering, inclusief Memorie van Toelichting
Jacques Claessen, Gert Jan Slump, Anneke van Hoek, Annemieke Wolthuis, Theo de Roos

In deze publicatie treft u de herziene versie aan van het voorstel van wet strekkende tot de invoering van herstelrechtvoorzieningen in het Wetboek van Strafvordering, opgesteld op initiatief van en door burgers. Het is een wetsvoorstel, inclusief Memorie van Toelichting, waartoe wij het initiatief hebben genomen in het kader van de aanstaande invoering van een nieuw Wetboek van Strafvordering. Het voorstel van wet is geschreven door een initiatiefgroep (Universiteit Maastricht en Restorative Justice Nederland) in samenwerking met een denktank bestaande uit strafrecht- en herstelrechtprofessional. De proeve van wetgeving is in juni 2018 aangeboden aan Minister voor Rechtsbescherming drs. S. Dekker en aan de leden van de Vaste Kamercommissie voor Justitie en Veiligheid van de Tweede Kamer. Met deze herziene versie van het voorstel van wet kan het formele wetgevingsproces wat ons betreft echt van start. De mogelijkheid om zaken in het strafrecht op een meer herstelgerichte manier af te doen is immers geen luxe, maar een noodzaak. 

“De stimulans en de uniformering die van dit initiatief uitgaat is waardevol voor de zich ontwikkelende rechtspraktijk. Door de rol die in deze herziene versie is toebedeeld aan de mediationbureaus wordt aangesloten bij de wijze waarop mediation in strafzaken is geregeld in de werkprocessen van OM en ZM”. 

mr. Judith Uitermark – rechter en landelijk coördinator mediation in strafzaken. 

€ 9.95 Verkrijgbaar via bol.com of uw lokale boekhandel

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